How to choose a pump for a well: calculation of parameters and types of units

How to choose a pump for a well: calculation of parameters and types of units

It is almost impossible to have a central water supply in houses outside the city. Usually a well or a well drilled by the owners takes over this function. In any case, you will have to puzzle over how to raise water from the mine. There are fewer problems with the well: I threw the bucket and pulled it out! But with a well, such a number will not work. The bucket simply will not fit into its design. The only option is to install a water pump. But they differ in their principle of action. It is advisable, before choosing a pump for a well, to study their range and features of work, as well as the characteristics of the casing for which you are selecting equipment. We will talk about some of the nuances, like these, today.

What is important to know when choosing a pump?

There are several parameters affecting the selection of a specific pump model for a well. And you need to analyze each of the parameters as accurately as possible.

Daily water consumption

Before you start choosing a pump, you need to calculate how much water you use per day. The power of the unit and its performance will depend on this. If your family is small (3-4 people), and there are no large gardens, you can stop at a unit that produces 60-70 liters per minute. If there are many flower beds and beds on the site, where frequent watering is required, you need to select a more powerful pump.

Accurate source depth

When studying pump models in the store, pay attention to the product passport. It always indicates to what depth the given model is designed. Your task is to correlate this information with your well data. If you do not specifically remember the dimensions, you can do this this way:

  • Hang a load (preferably iron) on a rope or thin twine;
  • Lower it into the well shaft until it hits the bottom;
  • Take out and measure the wet and dry part of the twine. Wet will tell you what is the height of the water column in the well, and dry - the distance to the surface from the beginning of the water;
  • Adding these two values ​​together gives the total borehole size.

Well filling rate with water (debit)

It is impossible to calculate the debit of the well ideally, because in spring the inflow of water will be faster, in winter it will be slower. But you can get by with approximate figures. It is easy to count them: you need to ask your friends or neighbors for a working pump and start it up at your source.

What to count:

  1. Notice the time during which the entire water is pumped out;
  2. You notice how many hours the well will take to fill completely;
  3. Divide time # 2 by time # 1 - you get an approximate debit.

The question may arise how to know that the well is full. Elementary! Periodically lowering the same weight with which you measured the height of the post. As soon as the readings coincide with those that you received when determining the size of the shaft, the well is filled.

This is useful: how to choose a pump for pumping water in the country

Casing diameter

If the well is still being planned, then it is better to make it four-inch. A great variety of pumps are sold for designs with this diameter of pumps, which cannot be said about three-inch ones. They drill less often, therefore little equipment is produced for them.

You can measure the diameter of the casing with a construction tape, and then convert centimeters to inches (1 inch is approximately 2.54 cm)

The diameter of the finished well can be easily measured by yourself (in centimeters, and then converted to inches), or contact the workers who drilled the structure for you.

Well drilled quality

If you have drilled the structure yourself or are not sure about the professionalism of the drillers, then look for pumps designed specifically for wells. Universal units, of course, will cost less, but they are less efficient. The fact is that unprofessional or long-used sources are often washed out with sand, and it will interfere with the operation of equipment. You will have to clean the pump frequently and will shorten its life. If the unit was created specifically for wells, then blockages in the liquid are not so terrible for it.

If the well was drilled by non-professionals, then it can be washed out with sand. Therefore, it is better to buy specialized pumps designed specifically for wells, rather than universal ones.

Special selection parameters should be considered when selecting a pump for a fountain in the country:

We select the unit according to the features of work

When all of the above has been analyzed, you can begin to familiarize yourself with the types of pumps. Based on the peculiarities of work, all systems are divided into 2 subgroups: surface and submersible (otherwise - deep). Let's consider their differences.

Surface pumps

This type of equipment is installed on the ground, without immersion. The pump pumps liquid by means of suction. The deeper the water column is, the harder it is to lift the liquid, the more powerful the system is selected. It is recommended to buy surface pumps for wells in which the distance to the beginning of the water column does not exceed 8 meters. Do not buy a rubber hose for pumping water. When the technology is turned on, it will begin to compress the walls due to the rarefied air and will not let the water through. Better to replace it with a small diameter pipe. The most important plus of a surface pump: easy to install, dismantle.

A surface pump can be installed right next to a well, and to reduce its growl, you can make a box of wood and hide equipment there.

Submersible units

If your well is deep, then the option with a surface pump will not work. We'll have to look among the submersible units.

The technique is immersed directly into a pipe, into a water column. Systems work on the principle of liquid expulsion. Determine which pump is needed for your well by the size of the well. More precisely, it is necessary to calculate the height to which the unit will have to push the water jet. To do this, remember the measurements that you took earlier. The length of the dry rope with a weight is the height to which the pump will have to raise the water. Add 3-4 m to it, because the pump is submerged a couple of meters deeper than the beginning of the water, and you will get the final figure. If it does not exceed 40 meters, then you can buy simple, low-power pumps. Look in the passport for information about the maximum depth at which the system can operate.

It is easy to recognize more powerful submersible pumps: their appearance is larger than that of low-power “brothers”, and they are heavier in weight.

By the way, if, according to your calculations, the height of the water rise is 60 meters, and for the pump this depth is the maximum, then it is better not to take this model. The equipment will work to the limit of its strength, because with each meter in depth, productivity decreases, and the load increases. Look for pumps rated 70 meters deep. This will help the equipment work without unnecessary stress and better survive.

Advice! Take models with automation. If the motor overheats (from a long run time or clogged water) or all the liquid is pumped out, the pump will turn off by itself. Otherwise, the motor will simply burn out until you find the problem.

Of the two types of submersible pumps (centrifugal and vibratory), it is better to stop at the former. Vibrating ones are too sensitive to dirty water, and in the process they destroy the walls of the well.

It is important to know the parameters for pumps designed for watering the garden and vegetable garden:

The centrifugal pump captures water by its blades, and not by vibration of the membrane, like a vibrating one, so it hangs motionless and does not destroy the walls of the well

The pump is a long-term choice, so look for models from well-known, well-established manufacturers. Then it will be easier for you to find a service center for the repair and maintenance of your system.

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The borehole pump is one of the main components of the water supply system. The types of pumps for wells can be very different - surface (top), submersible, vacuum, etc. It is necessary to consider the types of pumps in a little more detail so that any consumer, even if he will equip a well with the help of professionals.

It is necessary that the buyer does not blindly trust them, but he himself understands in general terms which of the options is better to consider as equipment suitable for the prepared well.

Since the owner of the well has to spend money, it is necessary that finances are spent as efficiently as possible. Below is an overview of equipment that has been in use for many years and has received positive feedback.

In addition, surface equipment:

  • Not comfortable
  • Makes a lot of noise
  • Capricious at work.

An external pump for a full-fledged and serious supply of water to housing will not work, and it makes no sense to describe them in detail. Surface pumps for a well have a significant disadvantage, due to which they are in a large number of cases not suitable for wells, because the equipment is located on the surface near drilling, and the suction height of water should be at least 8 m already with the pump running (dynamic level), that is, the initial level, not disturbed by pumping or filling, should be even higher. And not every well has such data.

Basic rules for choosing a submersible pump ↑

When deciding on the purchase of new equipment, you should not rely on reviews of submersible pumps for wells. It is necessary to investigate the borehole and perform a number of defining calculations.

Water intake parameters ↑

First of all, the water level is checked and the depth of the hydraulic structure is determined. If you have a passport, there are no problems. But if it was issued a long time ago (over time, changes in the aquifer may occur) or is absent, they resort to the proven method:

  • a dry rope is lowered into the shaft, at the end of which a weight is fixed so that the impromptu lot reaches the bottom
  • after excavation to the surface, the water level is calculated on the wet part, and on the dry part - the distance from the surface to the water mirror.

This criterion determines what the minimum and maximum depth of operation of the pump will be.

Well flow rate ↑

The flow rate is the time required for maximum filling of the production pipe with water. Approximate data are obtained by calculating the ratio of the intensity of pumping water (cubic m / h) during measurements and the difference between the dynamic and static level of the mirror. The result is multiplied by the height of the water column.

The static level is measured one day after the last operation of the well, the dynamic level is measured immediately after pumping out the water. The height of the water column is defined as the difference between the depth of the shaft and the static water level.

Layout of equipment in a borehole mine.

Water consumption level ↑

This parameter directly depends on the following conditions:

  • number of family members
  • the presence of household appliances that consume water (washing machine, dishwasher)
  • backyard economy: cattle and poultry yard, garden, vegetable garden, flower beds.

On average, a person consumes from 100 to 200 liters of water per day. Consumption rates for meeting all needs depend on how extensive the farm is, what is the irrigation area. In winter, consumption is lower than in summer.

Usually a pump with a capacity of 30-50 liters of water every minute is sufficient for the needs of a family. And if you have to serve a large livestock and water a large area, it is recommended to increase the equipment capacity to 80-100 l / min.

IMPORTANT TO KNOW: When choosing a pump, the water pressure is also taken into account. For a well with a depth of 50 m, a device with a pressure of 90 m is required. The parameter is the sum of the depth (50 m) + 30 m (height of the water column) + 10% margin for losses.

The ratio of static and dynamic water level is an important criterion when choosing equipment for pumping water

Tenth place - "UNIVERSAL" SHTORM-1

The model has a two-valve system of the upper water intake. It is widely used for the arrangement of domestic water supply from fresh water bodies, including wells and boreholes of various depths and debit volumes.

"UNIVERSAL" SHTORM-1 operates from a household power supply system, has a delivery height of 80 meters with a capacity of up to 12 l / min inclusive. Able to pump liquid with impurities up to 105 mm.

The vibrating pump can be used for a long time due to its efficient cooling system. It is also distinguished by its small size and weight, which makes it possible to equip household service systems in any convenient place.

Well pump in individual ... How to choose the right submersible pump ... Water well pumps - like ...

In addition to positive aspects, it also has disadvantages. The latter are expressed:

  • in the use of rated current no more than 3.6 A
  • at a current frequency of 50 Hz +/- 1%.

For use in personal plots, summer cottages and small houses - the best solution that copes with the tasks. Not suitable for domestic use due to the limited technical characteristics.