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Euonymus is an ornamental plant with interesting foliage that changes color during the season
The value of euonymus species
In decorative gardening, all types of euonymus are valued for their interesting properties: they have a beautiful crown, which, thanks to small oppositely planted leaves and rather dense branching of shoots, creates an original mosaic of foliage.
Blossoming of euonymus usually occurs at the end of May, first half of Junewhen the leaves are fully expanded and tassels of several flowers are clearly visible against a dark background.
By autumn, the appearance of euonymus completely changes, white, yellow, orange, pink, red, carmine and purple colors appear on a green background, changing their color to red by October - foliage ready to fall off. And even when it completely falls off, euonymus continue to decorate the garden with their bright fruits, invisible in summer.
Spindle trees are highly resistant to urban conditions, but their attitude to illumination is different. For example, it is better to plant Maak's euonymus in an open place, while European and warty euonymus will feel comfortable even in partial shade.
And in a shaded place on the border of the site, you get the original hedge from Sakhalin and sacred euonymus. To create a decorative group, for example, on a slope, it is better to choose a large-winged or Sakhalin euonymus, which can grow well due to rooting of the lower branches.
Attitude to soil
Euonymus are quite demanding on the richness of the soil or its aeration. They absolutely cannot stand the close standing of groundwater or stagnant moisture. For successful growth, neutral or slightly alkaline soils are needed, and acidic should be lime... For abundant fruiting, it is recommended to apply mineral and organic fertilizers, and sand in clay soils.
Diseases and pests of euonymus
The attitude of euonymus to diseases and pests is quite peculiar, it literally attracts them, perhaps this is the only reason that prevents the widespread distribution of this shrub in gardening. The hawthorn, apple moth, various types of aphids and other pests are especially fond of nesting on bushes, except, perhaps, the flower beetle and moth. An interesting fact is that when on the euonymus planted near fruit trees, everything is covered with cobwebs with caterpillar nests, the apple trees growing nearby are absolutely clean. Thus, euonymus can be used to protect the garden from pests.
Species of euonymus reproduce quite easily by dividing the bush, root suckers and green cuttings.
Reproduction by dividing a bush is perhaps the easiest way of vegetative propagation and consists in digging up the entire plant and carefully dividing it with a sharpened pruner into two or more parts, and then planting them in a permanent place.
The method of reproduction by root suckers is somewhat different from the first and is more complicated, it consists in carefully separating them and transplanting them to a permanent place. But the most difficult is the method of propagation by green cuttings and is as follows: in June-July, young, but rather elastic shoots are chosen, of which cuttings 4-6 centimeters long with one or two internodes are cut.
Then they are planted in a greenhouse under a film in a substrate from fertile soil, on top of which sand is poured with a layer of 5-7 centimeters. When planted in June, roots form in September. The resulting rooted cuttings should be immediately transplanted into the ground, and only next fall you will receive a full-fledged planting material.
In addition to the vegetative method, euonymus can be propagated by simple sowing of seeds. Immediately after harvesting the seeds should be stratified, for this they are mixed with coarse calcined sand or poorly decomposed peat in a ratio of 1: 2. To prevent damage to seeds, they should be cleared of seedlings.
Sowing is carried out in shallow grooves in a substrate of leaf and sod land, humus and sand in a ratio of 4: 1 to 2: 1. Seedlings usually appear in 2-3 weeks. Seedlings that have appeared in spring and autumn should be mulched with peat chips, a layer of no more than three centimeters. During the summer, seedlings must be watered and fed with a mullein, and covered with spruce branches for the winter. In the third year after the emergence of seedlings, they should be transplanted to a permanent place.
Due to their unpretentiousness, shade tolerance and decorativeness, euonymus have long earned the attention of gardeners and gardeners. Their extraordinary beauty is fully manifested in the fall season, when they become unusually elegant. And this elegance lies in the fact that the delicate openwork crown is painted in pink, red and even purple tones, which, like festive lanterns, swing on long peduncles, and later turn into bright fruits. Euonymus are recommended mainly for single and loose plantings in parks and forest parks, for hedges and as undergrowth.
As for the fruits, they are inedible for humans, but they are willingly pecked by birds, which contributes to the spread of plants.
Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Researcher,
department of berry crops GNU VNIIS them. I.V. Michurina, member of the R&D Academy
Conditions for growing euonymus
Indoor euonymus feels great when given a well-lit place, you can even put it on a windowsill in direct sunlight. Japanese spindle tree feels quite comfortable in partial shade.
In the summer months, the plant will feel better if it is taken out into the open air, balcony, loggia or outside in the garden. In winter, if the euonymus began to fall out of leaves, transfer it to a cooler room.
The euonymus is not too whimsical to temperature conditions, it can grow at + 5-10 degrees. However, in very warm rooms during the winter months, leaves may begin to shed. In the summer, it tolerates heat up to +25 degrees.
Watering the plant requires moderate, and since it winters in relatively cool conditions, it should be watered at this time so as not to allow the earthen coma to completely dry out. In the summer, watering can be made more abundant. Very favorable for spraying spraying with water.
The best option would be a mixture of turf, humus and leafy soil in a ratio of 2: 1: 1. For planting, also add river sand to the soil. A mixture of turf (3 parts) and peat (0.5 parts) is also suitable. Sand is also added.
Young euonymus plants are transplanted annually, and older plants are transplanted once every 3-4 years in the spring.
In the period from spring to autumn, it needs to be fed with organic and mineral fertilizers once a month. In the winter season, the plant does not need feeding.
The spindle tree needs regular pruning in order for its crown to have a beautiful shape. Also, weak shoots must be removed in time. This pruning will stimulate the formation of new shoots from previously dormant buds. For more intensive branching, the shoots are pinched.
This plant has the necessary properties to form a tree in the form of a bonsai. Pruning also allows you to create a variety of plant crown shapes such as a ball, ellipse or cone.
Of the diseases for euonymus, gray rot is characteristic, which manifests itself on the leaves of plants with a grayish bloom and brown spots. Excessive humidity may be the reason for this. When a scabbard or spider mite appears, actellik solution (0.15%) is used.
The euonymus plant is an evergreen perennial shrub of the euonymus family. There are about 200 species in the genus, united by common morphological characteristics. Wild forms are found in Asia, America, Europe and Australia. The distribution of this tree shrub is mostly concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere.
Euonymus prefers a temperate climate and grows in river estuaries, valleys, mixed and deciduous forests. Translated from Latin means "glorious tree" or "tree with a good name." Domestic florists call the culture of barlin, night blindness, wolf earrings or bast, sour, blind potatoes or God's eyes.
In horticultural culture, euonymus is grown as a shrub or a small tree for the purpose of decorating a plot, local area, fences or outbuildings. Hedges from are popular in landscape design.
With proper care, euonymus looks very impressive. If you want to add colors to your garden in late autumn or winter, euonymus plantations will be an excellent decorative addition. In the autumn, the openwork foliage, along with the seed pods, is painted in multi-colored shades. The euonymus looks picturesque on the site, its variegated color cannot be replaced. The plant has unpretentiousness, shade tolerance and special decorative effect.
Conditions for keeping rabbits of giants
Rabbit cages are placed outdoors in the shade or in the basement.
Attention! Overheating or hypothermia can lead to the death of animals.
In winter, the cages are insulated. A prerequisite for keeping giants is cleanliness in the cage, so cleaning the cage should be done 1-2 times a week. Dirt and dampness can make the animal sick. The water in the drinking bowl must be constantly clean and warm. But we fill the feeder as it is emptied or by the hour, which is much more efficient.
The rate of weight gain, the condition of the fur, the fertility and health of the animal depend on the content of the feed. The main food for rabbits is grass and hay. In addition, rabbits need minerals, vitamins, macro- and microelements. A complete diet should include herbs, fruits, vegetables, grains, and legumes.
Each type of feed needs its own feeder. The easiest way to fully feed rabbits is to purchase special feeds, where all types of ingredients are combined in the right ratio, and there is also bone meal. There are special feeds for young animals, for females and males. The diet should contain tree branches, but not stone fruit. You can also add bran and cake to the diet.
Attention! Rabbits should not be given wheat and crackers, buns, pasta and sweets. Do not feed them food waste that can lead to gastrointestinal disease.
Some plants can be poisonous:
- lily of the valley
Schefflera - cultivation and reproduction
In nature, it grows in the humid tropics, where it is forced to fight for a place in the sun with other powerful plants. At home, he can put up with a lack of lighting.
Shefflers belong to the Araliev family. In the wild, they are found in Southeast Asia, Australia.
Schefflera eight-leafed - the first sheffler species, which began to be grown as a houseplant. This is a low (10–12 m) tree. Each leaf consists of several (on old plants - up to 16) leaves up to 30 cm in length.
Scheffler's tree appeared in the houses of townspeople later. She is originally from Taiwan. Mature plants can be very large and are suitable for large spaces. If the shefflera begins to grow violently in height, she can pinch the top.
Several bright varieties of tree shefflers have been bred, for example: Renata - with cut leaves Gold Capella, Diana, Beauty and others - with variegated leaves (speckled, striped).
The plant does not tolerate direct sunlight. In winter, the sheffler is placed in a bright place protected from direct rays (this is especially important in warm rooms). Only variegated forms suffer from a lack of light.
Excess water at the roots causes the leaves to fall off. But it is also impossible to dry out the root ball. The soil in the pot should be moderately moist at all times. Plants are native to the tropics, so they need regular spraying (air humidity not lower than 55%). Leaves are wiped weekly with a damp sponge.
In winter, plants need coolness. Schefflera arborescent hibernates at + 12-15 ° C (lower temperatures can cause leaf fall). Schefflera eight-leafed more "hardened" (temperature threshold - 10 ° C heat). Moreover, the soil for both types should not be colder than air.
In summer, plants are fed once a week with liquid fertilizer for decorative leafy species. In winter, feeding is reduced to once a month.
Transplant and reproduction
Schefflers (primarily tree-like) under the age of five are transplanted annually. The new pot should be slightly wider than the previous one - this will limit the growth of the shefflers.
For Scheffler, the eight-leafed plant is pinched for branching, and the elongated plants are tied to a support (best of all to a stick wrapped in coconut fiber).
Since the sheffler almost does not branch, several young specimens or cuttings are planted in a pot. Semi-lignified cuttings root easily at room temperature (20–25 ° C).
For better root formation, cuttings are dipped into a growth stimulator. Large specimens can be planted with air layers - this accelerates the development of plants and increases their endurance.
Euonymus on the windowsill: the secrets of growing
Green-leaved varieties of euonymus tolerate shade better.
Charming euonymus bushes grow well in the room, you just need to take into account the simple requirements for the agricultural technology of growing crops.
The culture is very undemanding to lighting, especially varieties with green leaves. It is best to choose eastern or western window sills for growing crops. In summer, excessive lighting can lead to leaf burns. In winter, plants need to be provided with a bright location, otherwise the shoots will stretch out from insufficient lighting.
Euonymus varieties with green leaves are less dependent on the length of daylight hours. Variegated varieties lose their contrasting color in low light, leaves with a yellow or creamy pattern become a uniform green color. This can serve as a signal for the grower to change the conditions for keeping the plant.
Maintaining the required temperature is a very important aspect in the cultivation of eonymus. In summer, euonymus grows well at temperatures up to + 25 ° C, in extreme heat, the growth of eonymus stops, leaves may crumble. Dry air at high air temperatures can lead to infection of the plant with a spider mite, so in the summer it is better to take the bushes to the balcony and spray the crown frequently.
In winter, plants are provided with a temperature regime of +8 to + 10 ° C. An excellent solution is to keep your home spindle trees on a closed balcony with a moderate temperature. If he hibernates in a room, it is necessary to put a pot with a spindle tree closer to the window panes, where the temperature is slightly lower than in the room.
Euonymus does not like to grow in peat-based soils, so it is best to prepare the substrate for planting yourself:
- Leafy ground - 1 tsp
- Sod land - 2 hours
- Sand - 1 tsp
The soil mixture should have a pH level of 6 (neutral acidity).
As a last resort, for planting a plant, you can take natural loam, diluting it with sand, but this is not the best substrate for growing eonymus.
Organic and mineral fertilizers can be used to feed the plant. Ordinary manure is suitable, which is infused in water in a ratio of 1:10. An overdose of organic fertilizers can lead to a change in the color of variegated forms - bright variegated leaves will turn green.
It is best to use balanced complex fertilizers for feeding the eonymus, which are applied 1-2 times a month during the period of plant growth.
In winter, feeding is not carried out.
Watering and humidity
Bright foliage is preserved when kept in a bright place.
The euonymus is very responsive to watering, but the water should be carefully defended or filtered. Excessive salts dissolved in irrigation water negatively affect the plant.
Watering is carried out only when the upper layer of the substrate dries up. It is strictly not allowed to leave water in a tray under the pot - excessive soil moisture causes problems with the plant's root system.
In summer, the plant is watered more often and more abundantly than in winter, especially when the euonymus is wintering at low temperatures.
Eonymus can shed its leaves at high ambient temperatures. In summer, dry air can cause drying of the leaf blades along the edge, which significantly reduces the decorative qualities of the plant. The leaves of the euonymus should be moistened in extreme heat, the dusty plant tolerates bathing in the shower perfectly.
Eonimus grows slowly, but the plant still has to be replanted. The signal for a transplant may be the appearance of roots from the drainage hole of the flower pot.
You can use a ceramic or plastic planter, but any containers must be filled with an expanded clay drainage layer.
You cannot immediately plant a small plant in a large pot; it is better to transfer the euonymus into slightly larger containers annually.
When transshipment, the roots of the plant are slightly straightened, but the old earthen lump is not destroyed. The root collar of the plant should not be covered with soil.
Growing euonymus in bonsai form.
The euonymus tolerates a shaping haircut very well, due to which interesting shapes are cut out of the plant: a ball on a leg, three balls of different diameters on the central stem, pyramidal and cuboid crowns. Often the plant is grown in the bonsai style, although euonymus is slow in growth, a high decorative effect can be achieved in a few years.
Indoor euonymus is propagated by seeds very rarely, it is easier and faster to get new plants by cuttings. You can root the apical cuttings obtained after pruning.
For rooting, it is worth choosing cuttings no more than 10 cm long, the lower cut is performed under the leaves with a bevel of 45 degrees. Rooting is carried out in a mixture of peat and sand, placing the pots with cuttings in greenhouse conditions.
Rooting can take a long time, but after 3 months, almost all seedlings acquire roots. To accelerate the formation of roots, cuttings are treated with phytohormones during planting.
Sometimes euonymus is propagated by dividing the bush, offspring appear annually next to the main trunk, which are easy to separate for growing new specimens.
Diseases and pests
Very often a spider mite or scale insect attacks the euonymus. In order to track the appearance of pests in time, you need to carry out regular inspections of the plant. The mite most often colonizes the lower surface of the leaf blade. Strong leaves of euonymus can persist for a long time on a diseased plant, they fall off when the tick population reaches a critical size.
At the first signs of pests, the plant should be treated with insecticides. Before processing, it is worth wiping the leaves with a cotton swab moistened in soapy water, violating the integrity of the scabbard shell, and then treating the eonymus crown with special preparations.
Overflowing plants can cause stress, leaf fall and the death of the root system, therefore, adherence to agricultural technology when growing euonymus is mandatory.