It is important for every summer resident to know the rules for pruning currant bushes. This increases the yield by 3 times, increases its immunity and heals the crop.
Remove top shoots
Currants always bear fruit only on matured branches that have reached 2-3 years of age. Trimming the upper one-year-old processes is necessary for four main reasons:
- these are barren flowers that interfere with the normal development of the plant. They take energy, moisture and nutrition from the fruiting part of the bush. If they are removed on time, the berries will ripen better and faster, the yield of the bush will be higher;
- they shade the central branches. And they are the most fruitful. Lack of sunlight will negatively affect the quality of the crop;
- after their removal, the main, most powerful and fruiting branches will become healthier and will better resist pathogens and diseases;
- red and white currants often suffer from gall aphids. Usually their hordes are concentrated on the upper shoots. After removing the affected green mass, it must be burned.
Trimming the upper branches is also necessary for aesthetic purposes. The bushes grow in the correct, even shape, do not creep chaotically around the site, do not interfere with neighboring crops.
Remove unnecessary side branches
Without proper attention, the currant quickly overgrows with useless shoots, the bush loses its shape, the nutrition of the most developed fruiting branches deteriorates. Proper haircutting prevents fungal, bacterial, lichen and rot damage.
Particular attention should be paid to pruning the branches growing inward.
They thicken the crown, prevent proper ventilation of the entire bush and cover the central branches from the sun. As a result, the berries become smaller, new ovaries are not formed, and the entire bush begins to age rapidly.
Prune old branches
Sanitary pruning is carried out all year round and constantly. This is the regular removal of dry, damaged and diseased parts of the bush. The plant is so unpretentious and tenacious that it is able to survive any pruning.
In spring, the lower branches are almost completely removed from currants and burned.
They, as a rule, are affected by a specific parasite - a kidney mite. It spreads an incurable infectious disease - terry. The main symptom is unnaturally swollen, swollen kidneys.
Also, all varieties of currants suffer from glass. The larvae of this pest live and multiply inside old large branches, gradually causing them to die off.
They must be cut to the ground and then burned. Before starting the procedure, it is recommended to treat the cutting part of the secateurs with an antiseptic so as not to introduce a fungal infection. For the same purpose, all sections are covered with paint, especially in the lower part of the plant.
Feed the bush after pruning
After 5-7 days after carefully pruning the currants, it must be fed simultaneously with watering. This allows the culture to quickly recuperate after stress, provide a supply of necessary nutrition in the ground, and also stimulate the emergence of new ovaries.
Mullein is the best organic fertilizer. It is mixed with water in a ratio of 1 to 6.
Watering is carried out in a furrow 7-10 cm deep, pre-formed around the trunk. Each bush requires one bucket of such a mixture.
Boric acid concentrate is also used, which is diluted with water at the rate of 2 g per 10 liters. The resulting composition is used to spray the plant from a spray bottle.
Superphosphate will bring great benefits to currants. It can be combined with organic feed. The powdery substance is scattered around the bush, and then abundantly moisten the trunk circle with a solution of mullein or compost.
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How to increase the yield of currants
One of the conditions for the future harvest is spring pollination of flowers. In the middle lane, black currant blooms in the second half of May for ten to twenty days. Currant pollen is sticky and poorly wind-borne. To attract pollinating insects to planting, the bushes are sprayed with a solution prepared from a tablespoon of honey and a liter of water.
It has a positive effect on the yield of currants and cross-pollination with pollen of another variety. To make this possible, on the plot of land intended for planting this culture, two or three varieties of currants are placed, differing in terms of ripening. In order to prevent shading of plants with such a variety, varieties in which the bushes have a spreading shape are planted less often than varieties with a compact crown. Unlike black, self-fertile red currants do not require cross-pollination to increase the yield.
Due to the lack of moisture in the soil, currants can throw off already formed ovaries. To prevent this and increase the future harvest, the plantings are watered if necessary. In a dry year, after the flowering of currants ends, four buckets of water are required per square meter of soil. After absorbing moisture, the soil is mulched. The same operation is performed during the formation of berries.
Currants consume a fairly large amount of nutrients. To obtain high yields of this berry, it is required to compensate for the loss of compounds carried by the plant from the ground. Experiments show that a good result can be achieved if one hundred grams of soil contains at least thirty milligrams of phosphorus pentoxide available for the shrub and twenty-five milligrams of potassium oxide. To bring the content of the necessary compounds in the earth to the desired concentration, thirty grams of ammonium nitrate, eighty grams of superphosphate and twenty-five grams of potassium sulfate are added every year per square meter of soil. Planting with ammonium nitrate is fertilized in early spring, when the soil is moist. In the fall, other substances are scattered into the furrows dug along the border of the crown of the bush.
The main crop of black currant is concentrated on two or three year old shoots. Older branches produce fewer berries, and therefore the plants are formed by pruning in such a way that three to four one-year shoots remain on the bush annually, which will gradually replace the six-year-old branches that are removed. For red currants, the productive age of the shoot increases to seven years. By gradual pruning, you can restore the yield of an unformed bush. To do this, within two to three years, all old branches are removed from the currants. Plant pruning is carried out, as a rule, in the fall, after leaf fall.
Pros of currant pruning
With the timely removal of old and weak young shoots:
- bushes are less susceptible to infection with fungal diseases and infestation of pests
- food goes directly to the ovaries, which makes the berries larger and tastier
- the seedling is gradually renewed, without ceasing to delight with the harvest
- well-formed shoots begin to grow.
Rejuvenation after picking berries provides solid annual growth. As a result, the harvest of future seasons is laid, and competently formed adult plants are in a fruiting state for a long time.
Pruning old currants in autumn
Currant rejuvenation can also be carried out in the fall. Although, with proper pruning, the bushes can grow in one place and actively bear fruit for quite a long time. So, black currant begins to give maximum yields in the fourth or sixth year, and by the eighth it already needs rejuvenating pruning. True, the result obtained is also not eternal and by the age of twelve the bush will completely deplete and degenerate, therefore, in parallel with the rejuvenation, start preparing a replacement for it.
Red currant begins to bear fruit at a similar time, but retains its vitality and yield much longer. She will need rejuvenation only at the age of fifteen, and after "coming of age" the bush will have to be replaced. However, it can give berries longer, but they will be small and tasteless.
As in the case of sanitary pruning, it is better to hold out until the end of the natural fall of leaves without stimulating this process. If you are not sure when is the best time to prune currants in the fall, schedule this work in late September - mid-October.
Rejuvenating currant pruning can be carried out both in stages (in 2-3 years), and radically (at a time). The first method is better suited to bushes under the age of 10 years, the second - to very decrepit and sick plants.
So, if you decide to prune in stages, remove no more than a third of the old branches each fall. Start with those that are withered and sick, then gradually move on to the wrong ones. The branches must be cut off at the very ground and immediately dust the hemp with ash. In the third year, the main part of the bush will change, and the yield will increase again.
If the bush, in your opinion, is almost hopeless, you can act according to the "pan-or-go" method. In late autumn or early spring, before the buds awaken, cut off the entire ground part and dust the cuts with ash. Mulch the roots of the plant with straw, peat or rotted sawdust so that they do not freeze in winter. In the spring, pour the bush with Fitosporin solution according to the instructions, and then use mullein-based feeding and form it as a young seedling in the future.
Now you know how to cut currants in the fall, regardless of the variety, age and degree of neglect of the bush, which means that you can carry out this procedure annually, rejoicing in abundant berry harvests.
If you are not yet growing this shrub, learn how to properly plant it in the fall so that you can wait for your own berries as soon as possible.
Regardless of the variety of currants, it requires a lot of light to form tasty and large fruits, that is, pruning red currants in the fall, like black ones, has its own rules. The scheme will be as follows:
- The main goal is to lighten the bush - to provide the plant with as much light as possible to the shoots inside the bush if left. An adult bush at the age of 4-5 years consists of 6 large shoots or less that extend from the base. Moreover, their age should not be more than 5 years.
- Pruning black currants in the fall, like other plants, begins at the base of the bush, that is, from the ground - all old shoots that are more than 5 years old are removed. Although they may have excellent external qualities and well-formed lateral shoots, over time, their fertility will decrease more and more.
- Zero shoots (which are obtained this year) are removed. Such shoots are left only in the case of a large age of the plant, when it is assumed that they will bear fruit for a maximum of a couple of years. However, in this case, it is worth removing the bush completely, and cutting cuttings from good shoots. Another important advantage of currant pruning is the preparation of cuttings that can take root well before winter.
- Then you need to move higher along the main shoot - all intersecting lateral growths of the current and last year are removed. It is worth remembering the task: lightening of the bush is required. Do not maintain growths that are in doubt, as sunlight may not penetrate through them, which ultimately will lead to poor yields.
- The shoot tip of black currant, as a rule, is not removed - buds begin to form on it, which is a prerequisite for the next year's harvest. However, there are exceptions here: the shoots have twisted leaves, mainly this is evidence of the presence of anthracnose on the shoot, there is a large number of thick buds - a tick infection, in this case it is better to cut off the entire shoot if the top is thin and green, then the shoot is removed, since it is still not will survive the winter.
When deciding how to cut currants, it is worth considering that such a procedure is required not only for the plant itself, but also for the gardener, since the task of harvesting is simplified
In the autumn, after the crop has been harvested, the unripe and infected tops with diseases or pests are removed. The shoot may require a lot of pruning, but it is best to remove it completely.
Old shoots have almost no berries, but they slow down the growth of young
Particular attention is paid to the branches with a hollow core. The back door inside them indicates the presence of a glass larva, which is a dangerous pest. Such branches must be removed and burned without regret.
Regardless of the variety of currants, it requires a lot of light in order to form tasty and large fruits, that is, pruning red currants in the fall, like black ones, has its own rules
If it is difficult to determine the age of the shoot, it is worth taking a closer look at the bark and wood - the old shoots are dark in color.
Not only six-year-old shoots are removed, but also weakened ones, as well as those that stick to the ground.
Another reason for removing old shoots is that they can be affected by the glassworm, the larvae of which begin to eat away the core of the shoot, which significantly weakens the shrub.
It is possible to intensify the harvest by pruning shoots that are older than 3 years old, as well as those that have grown by less than 20 cm during the season. Old branches are removed at the soil level. The maximum height of the hemp should be 2-3 cm in order to prevent the growth of tops that have a common root with an obsolete shoot. All cuts must be processed with garden pitch.