Are you craving a cool, refreshing summer drink but you’re sick of lemonade and iced tea? Grab a tall glass of Agua de Jamaica, instead. Not familiar with this beverage? Agua de Jamaica is a popular drink in the Caribbean made from water, sugar and the sweet edible calyces of Roselle flowers. Read on for Roselle seed information, tips on harvesting seeds from Roselle and other uses for Roselle seeds.
Roselle Flower Seeds
Hibiscus sabdariffa, commonly called Roselle, is a large tropical bushy perennial in the Mallow family. Sometimes it is called Jamaican Sorrel or French Sorrel because its edible leaves look and taste like Sorrel. Roselle can be found in humid tropical locations, like Southeast Asia and the Caribbean, where the bright red plant stems are used for making a fiber similar to jute and its fruits are harvested for beverages, sauces, jellies and wine.
Roselle is hardy in zones 8-11, but if given a long and warm growing season, it can be grown and harvested like an annual in other zones. However, it cannot tolerate frost and requires a lot of moisture to grow happily.
Roselle flower seeds take about six months to mature. A mature Roselle plant can grow up to 6’ wide (1.8 m.) and 8’ (2.4 m.) tall. In late summer, it is covered in big beautiful hibiscus flowers. When these flowers fade, their seed-filled calyces are harvested for jellies and teas.
Harvesting Seeds from Roselle
Roselle seeds are usually harvested ten days after the flower blooms. The large flowers fade and fall off, leaving behind their bright red, fleshy lotus shaped calyces. Inside each calyx is a pod of seeds.
These calyces are harvested by carefully snipping them off the stems with sharp pruners or scissors. It’s very important for repeat blooming not to rip or twist the calyces off the plant.
The seeds grow within the calyces in a velvety capsule, similar to how seeds grow in peppers. After they have been harvested, the seed pod is pushed out of the calyx with a small hollow metal tube. The Roselle flower seeds are then dried to be planted later and the fleshy red calyces are dried or eaten fresh.
Uses for Roselle Seeds
The small, brown, kidney-shaped seeds themselves are only actually used to grow more plants. However, the red fruit they grow in contains Vitamin C, tastes like cranberries (only less bitter), and are high in pectins, which make them easy to use in jellies. With just water, sugar and Roselle calyces, you can make jellies, syrups, sauces, teas and other beverages.
Agua de Jamaica is made by boiling the Roselle calyces in water, straining this water and adding sugar, spices and even rum to taste. The leftover boiled calyces can be puréed to use for jellies and sauces. The fruits can also be eaten raw right off the plant.
Roselle flower seeds can be purchased online, sometimes under the name Flor de Jamaica. To grow your own, start seeds indoors 6-8 weeks before the last frost. Give them lots of moisture and humidity. Make sure they’ll have a long warm season in which to develop their seeds. If you live in a region where summers are too short for Roselle to mature, many health stores carry the dried calyces or hibiscus teas.
When to Pick Seed Pods Off a Collard Plant?
Collard (Brassica oleracea) is a close cousin to kale, cabbage, broccoli and cauliflower. Collards are easy to grow and love cooler temperatures the leaves can be picked and eaten throughout the season. Growing collard greens from seed is easy, but growing them for seed is a bit more involved. Like many other brassicas the collard plant is biennial, meaning that the first season is spent growing and maturing, while reproduction -- flowering and seed bearing -- occurs in spring of the second year.
This is a plant that you can grow anywhere in your garden, with its distinctive red stems, attractive light yellow flowers with deep red centres and open structure it is equally at home in the veggie patch, the ornamental garden or even in a pot and add to this that it can feed us as well, now is the time to add a couple to your garden.
The rosella, Hibiscus sabdarilla, is a member of the Malvaceae family of plants. Other well known members of this family include the ornamental hibiscus, cotton, cacao and okra. It is native to India and Malaysia but long ago was naturalised by many other tropical and sub tropical countries including Australia. Because of its popularity the rosella has many names some include roselle, Jamaican Tea, Maple-Leaf Hibiscus, Florida Cranberry, October Hibiscus, Red Sorrel and the list goes on. There are over 100 varieties of Hibiscus sabdarifla throughout the world. Not all varieties have red calyxes and not all calyxes are fleshy. Different varieties are grown for different purposes. In India a variety of rosella is cultivated for the bast fibre obtained from the stems, these fibre strands can be up to 1.5m long, are used to make yarn which is used in Hessian type fabrics, but primarily throughout the world the rosella is cultivated for culinary and medicinal purposes.
Rosellas will grow in almost any type of soil but do best in a well drained soil prepared with lots of organic matter and in full sun. They ideally need 5 or 6 months of
warm weather to produce to their full potential, making South East Queensland the ideal place to grow them. In cooler areas, plant as early as possible so they fruit early as frost will kill them. The rosella is a perennial but for optimum harvests it is grown as an annual. While usually grown from seed they can be grown from cuttings. Seeds can be planted directly into the garden or into seed trays, about 1/2 cm deep (seed trays in a warm protected position will give an earlier start to plants in cooler regions). It can help to soak seeds for about an hour before planting then water in with a mixture of 1 teas. Epsom Salts to five litres of water. Keep the soil moist until the seeds germinate. This is the time of the year to plant some rosella seeds. Plant out seedlings about 90cm apart when they have at least 4 leaves. Put in a Iittle blood and bone, soil conditioner or vermicast into the hole when you transplant them then water in with some Seaweed Spray. I usually give them a good watering with seaweed spray or fish emulsion a day or two before I transplant them.
The bushes should flower about 7 or 8 week after germinating, then it takes about another 3 or 4 weeks until the calyxes are ready to harvest. Water plants regularly until they start to flower then water only if necessary. Mature plants are fairly drought resistant. But if leaves droop give them a drink. The rosella bush will grow to between one and two meters tall. If you plant your seed early spring it is possible you can be harvesting in January or February. As the plant grows young shoots and leaves can be used both raw in salads or cooked like a spicy spinach in curries, stir fries or just as a green vegetable. Technically the calyxes are not a fruit but part of the flower and the seed pod inside should still be green when harvested. The most common and popular use for these tasty calyxes is to make Rosella Jam but they make a delicious tea, stew well for us in puddings, in jellies, heavenly liqueurs and syrups, cranberry like sauces and raw in salads. For use in teas it is usually better to dry the calyxes (they can easily be dried on a piece of old roofing iron) for later use but when collecting them for jams, jellies etc. clean them as they are harvested, dry then freeze them. In the West Indies the rosella calyxes are often made into cordials and punches as follows: pour hot water over about a kilo of dried Rosella with about one fresh grated ginger root added. Leave this to steep overnight. Strain off the exquisite pink liquid the next day and add sugar syrup (sugar and water heated) to taste, lime juice and crushed ice. White Rum can also be added for a famous medicinal rum punch. Each plant can produce up to 2 kg of calyxes. Pick them regularly and this will encourage more flowers and therefore more calyxes. In some African countries the seeds, although bitter, are ground and used like coffee or as a coarse powdered meal. Tea can be made with both the flowers and calyxes. Make an easy refreshing tea with calyxes, ginger and sugar.
Always save some seeds for next year's plants. From your early fruits select some good looking ones that can be allowed to mature for seed collection. I mark mine by tying a coloured ribbon on their stem so they are not accidentally harvested. When the seed pods inside are dry remove the calyxes (the calyxes can be used for eating cooking), open the pods to collect seeds. These seeds should remain viable for two or three years. I store mine in an airtight container in the bottom of the down stairs fridge.
The rosella bush has few pest and disease problems. Occasionally mealy bug and scale insects may be found on stems, caterpillars and beetles may eat leaves or calyxes and at times aphids can take up residence inside the calyx. Most of these problems can be solved with a soap spray or a molasses spray. If you have root node nematodes these can affect the rosella. Hibiscus beetles can sometimes be a problem. If they are they can be controlled by placing white ice cream containers with detergent and water among the plants, empty and replace with fresh water and detergent when necessary.
In many countries of the world all above ground parts of the rosella bush are used in traditional medicine.
- Infusions of the leaves or calyxes can be used for lowering blood pressure, as an antibacterial, as a remedy for the after effects of drunkenness
- It has been used as an antiseptic, aphrodisiac, astringent, cholagogue, demulcent, digestive, diuretic, emollient, purgative, refrigerant, resolvent, sedative, stomachic, and tonic.
- In East Africa, the calyx infusion, called "Sudan tea", is taken to relieve coughs and Roselle juice, with salt, pepper, asafetida and molasses, is taken as a remedy for biliousness.
- In Thailand, drunk as a tea, believed to also reduce cholesterol.
- Many Egyptians now use it to lower their blood pressure an idea may be taken from folk medicine.
- The heated leaves are applied to cracks in the feet and on boils and ulcers to speed maturation.
- A lotion made from leaves is used on sores and wounds.
- The seeds are said to be diuretic and tonic in action and the brownish-yellow seed oil is claimed to heal sores on camels.
- Philippines use the bitter root as an aperitif and tonic.
- In folklore it is used as a remedy for abscesses, bilious conditions, cancer, cough, debility, dyspepsia, dysuria, fever, hangover, heart ailments, hypertension, neurosis, scurvy, and strangury.
Researchers now are doing studies to see if Rosella is indeed active in lowering blood pressure and cholesterol levels.
Milkweed | Asciepias syriaca L.
Milkweed Growing and Propagation Guide
• Leaves are the only food source for monarch butterfly larvae and other milkweed butterflies.
• Flower Colors: Pink, yellow, white, green, purple
• Precautions: Milkweed sap can be irritating to skin and harmful to eyes. Wear gloves when handling milkweed and wash your hands thoroughly when done.
• Some milkweed plants can be invasive or aggressive in some regions: research before planting.
• In Canada and the United States avoid Asclepias curassavica or tropical milkweed which causes problems for the monarchs.
Shop Online: Milkweed plants | Naturehills.com
Milkweed seeds | Botanical Interests (both US Shipping)
Milkweed (Asclepias L.) is an American herbaceous perennial with over 140 known species. This plant has gained attention in recent years because some types are the sole host plant for monarch butterfly larvae (babies). No milkweed, no monarchs.
If you are growing just with monarchs in mind, find native species for your region that we know monarchs prefer.
Milkweeds are also a nectar source for bees and many other beneficial insects and their prey. The fluff (called coma) from the seed pods provides nesting material for birds and animals.
The ‘milk’ of milkweed is a sappy, latex-like substance. It is irritating to touch and toxic to animals. Historically, hunters used milkweed in arrows to weaken prey animals.
Milkweed flowers have complex structures and the pollination process is interesting. The pollen is contained in sacs (pollinia) that stick to the feet of visiting pollinators including bees and butterflies. Upon flying away, the sacs break open, releasing the pollen into the flower, or may be carried away to another milkweed for cross-pollination. Sometimes, they are too sticky and the insect is trapped.
Monarchs have co-evolved with particular milkweed species in different regions, using it as a natural defense. Ingestion of the sap by the monarch caterpillars makes them taste horrible to potential predators like birds.
Those orange and black markings are code for: don’t eat me, you will regret it!
Other butterfly species have also adopted these colors to foil the birds. They don’t eat the milkweed leaves but they look like they do, so those predators leave them alone too. It’s very cool!
The familiar, fluffy white stuff found in milkweed pods called coma, also known as silk, floss, plume, or pappus is used for insulating clothing. It’s less successful as a pillow stuffing lacking fluffiness for comfort. Coma is also good at absorbing oil with potential for absorbing oil spilled in waterways.
Hibiscus Species, Roselle, Jamaican Tea, Maple-Leaf Hibiscus, Florida Cranberry, October Hibiscus, R
|Family:||Malvaceae (mal-VAY-see-ee) (Info)|
|Genus:||Hibiscus (hi-BIS-kus) (Info)|
|Species:||sabdariffa (sab-duh-RIF-fuh) (Info)|
USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8 °C (25 °F)
USDA Zone 10a: to -1.1 °C (30 °F)
USDA Zone 10b: to 1.7 °C (35 °F)
USDA Zone 11: above 4.5 °C (40 °F)
Soil pH requirements:
From seed sow indoors before last frost
From seed direct sow after last frost
Allow pods to dry on plant break open to collect seeds
Average Water Needs Water regularly do not overwater
Where to Grow:
This plant is said to grow outdoors in the following regions:
Huntington Beach, California
Los Angeles, California(2 reports)
Zephyrhills, Florida(2 reports)
Ocean Springs, Mississippi
Myrtle Beach, South Carolina
On Feb 8, 2019, JennysGarden_TN from Collierville, TN wrote:
I grow Roselle every year to harvest its calyxes for tea and leaves for culinary use. It produces endless pretty flowers. Its bright red buds and dark, deeply lobed foliage attract attention.
On Jun 20, 2017, janelp_lee from Toronto, ON (Zone 6a) wrote:
There is also a less common White Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) with white flowers and white fruit.
On Nov 2, 2016, kristeenryan from Panama City, FL wrote:
I was given 5 very small cuttings of Roselle hibiscus on September 10th of this year and all 5 have grown immensely and I have just started to get flowers! I am very much looking forward to harvesting them and trying to make a drink.
I had never heard of them prior to receiving these tiny cuttings. 4 of them are between 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 feet tall and the 5th is almost 2 feet tall already and all of them are covered with buds.
They are so pretty. I will certainly be adding to my 5 and I think I will create a garden back wall with them. I wish there was a way to share photos on here,
On Oct 25, 2016, malsprower from Daytona, FL wrote:
Never expected them to flourish in my poor sandy soil, but they sure did, topping a total of 8 feet tall at the moment. I was expecting them to grow only 5 feet tall so I got a surprise. These plants survived hurricane Matthew and I used a thick rope to keep the bunch tied together for the storm, I live 1 mile from the ocean, 20 feet from the intercoastal, and we got a direct hit. The wind blew them down from the east. I propped them back up and they are doing awesome despite the beating, they are towering above my boyfriend, who is 6' 4". First bloom opened today, I will grow these again and again, as I heard they are annual. I never water them or feed them, seems like they handle life on their own quite well.
On Nov 8, 2015, Xtal from Temple, TX wrote:
An annual here in Central Texas. VERY low water. Because of our recent series of heavy rains, they have all fallen over. They certainly didn't like it when I watered them. I lost a couple. I promised not to water anymore. The tea is fantastic. I'll alway have this in my garden.
On Oct 5, 2014, williamca from Plant City, FL (Zone 9b) wrote:
Grown from cuttings from the Community Garden the flowers are the same color as the red foliage. Seeds from this clone produced green plants but the flowers which are beginning to appear have not matured so I'll watch them while they mature. It is a lovely addition to a tropical garden. Wikipedia has a good description and interesting details.
On Oct 12, 2012, JerseyGirl711 from Millington, NJ wrote:
We are going to get our first heavy frost tonight in Morris County, NJ so I dug up my 4 roselle plants and potted them to spend the winter in the garage. They are covered with flower buds - has anyone else tried transplanting them at this stage? They are between 2 and 3 feet tall and a little spindly as they were growing in the shade of 4 foot tall lemon grass ( which I have also just potted up for the winter). Hope they both make it - otherwise it's gonna be Thai soup for dinner next week!
On Dec 29, 2010, seminole_CFL from Winter Springs, FL wrote:
We grew three sorrel plants from seedlings, planted in June 26. By late November the plants were huge, 4 or 5 feet in diameter, lovely spheres of sorrelness. We harvested a LOT calyxes for sorrel drink and dried some for mailing to family up in NYC.
Obtained our seedlings from local organic nursery.
On Sep 10, 2010, Wrinkledlight from Palm Bay, FL wrote:
I am growing about 30 of these plants for the first time. I started them all from seed in the ground. I purchased my seed from rareseeds.com. I have used the leaves cooked with other greens. I find it better that way instead of by themselves. They have a very tart/lemony flavor. Very good. Starting at the end of August they started to bloom and produce the calyces.
On Jul 1, 2010, merginglight from Gravette, AR wrote:
I purchased Red Thai Roselle seeds (collected from Thailand) from Baker Creek Heirloom Seeds because I had read that the leaves and the calyxes of this specific plant can be made into a drink and a sweet sauce.
I started my Roselle seeds indoors on March 5th and thenmoved them outdoors once they took, but to my surprise we had two snow storms, which set my
seedlings back quite a bit. I started roughly 6 seeds and only three took and grew into seedlings. Of the three, only one has matured. One seedling was put near garlic and was slightly shaded and it never developed past it's two first leaves. The other two I put in two year old loose compost. One plant never developed past it's first two leaves, but the other one finally developed other leaves and is now two foot high and. read more just as full. It's a beautiful plant, which I would, without hesitation, border a driveway or a house with or put in any sunny location where I can see the plant all the time. It's obvious I need to learn more about growing this plant because I could only get one plant out of 6 seeds to grow. Now that I have the one plant, I hope to get the mature Calyxes so to save seed, so to try again next year.
On Sep 25, 2008, kdaustin from Austin, TX (Zone 8b) wrote:
In my area its not perennial, so you have to store it over the winter. Pretty not spectacular though. Can be rangy.I bought it 8 years ago at a herb show, my little 4" pot grew to be 3' x 2' in the garden. I couldn't find info about hardiness at the time, and it froze. However if you were growing it purely for culinary purposed it would be worthwhile, the flavor is delish and rather unusual.
On Jul 5, 2008, Darmananda from New Iberia, LA wrote:
This plant was grown as a vegetable plant in Burma, where I grew up. They are grown seasonally. They are mainly used for soup. The Burmese add fish to it and make a delicious sour soup. Add a few chilies and you get a very tasty soup that is very good for clearing up your sinus system! This soup is especially good because it is winter (that's when this plant likes to grow when no other vegetable want to bother). Both leaves and seedbags (the budlike things (fruits) in which the seeds are stored) can be eaten. Use only the skin of the fruit. You can also put the flower in the soup to make it creamy! Now in the US, I didn't know what this plant was called or does it exist in the US? Then I remembered the flowers kinda looked like hibiscus so I searched for keyword "edible hibiscus" on Google. read more and boom, I was provided with a link to Dave's Garden on the search returns. The reddish maple-leaf-like foliage is both beautiful and delicious, (beautilicious?!). Now that I know the name, I can do further research to see if I can find some seeds here in Louisiana. One thing though, the ones we had in Burma are sour, not sweet. It was the whole point, sour. I can imagine people who use it for salad and tea purposes wanting it sweet though. But I must find this sour variety here in the US! I must make that soup I grew up eating. Yummy!
On Nov 5, 2007, melgir from Santa Monica, CA (Zone 10b) wrote:
Beautiful and It grows fine in zone 10b, coastal Southern California, but it got off to a slow start. It would not germinate outside during our mostly cool summers. Hot weather comes in Sept and doesn't last long enough to allow much time for the plant to produce prolifically. Now, In early Nov., the plant is starting to get downy mildew from the bottom(from overnight & morning fog perhaps?). No one knows which parts of the plant to use or how to dry or prepare it. Attempts to dry resulted in mold. Any suggestions?
On Oct 22, 2006, onalee from Brooksville, FL (Zone 9a) wrote:
Roselle is a WONDERFUL plant in the home landscape and one that I am truly impressed with for it's ease of care and beauty. Fifty years ago it was widely grown in Florida as a summertime hedge and for its edible calyces and I don't know why it still isn't! I have found these to be PEST FREE, super easy to grow, will take FLORIDA full sun with no problem and require NO TRIMMING to form a beautifully shaped shrub.
The dark green leaves contrast nicely with the red stems and petioles, making it a beautiful specimen even before it starts to bloom. In the fall the plants EXPLODE with flowers that start the day yellow with a light blush of pink and end the day as a dark, dusty rose color. Although each flower is only about 3" across and lasts only a day, they bushes are covered i. read more n new flowers each day. Just when other plants are starting to fade, these really liven the landscape during the fall!
The edible calyces (fruits) are a bonus!
At the bottom of each flower, enclosing the bases of the five petals, is a fleshy bright red cup-like structure called a calyx, The calyx is about 1 inch in diameter. The calyces of roselle are used to make juices, sauces, jellies, wines and pies.
Place roselle where it will have plenty of room. This is a large annual, so thin plants to about 3 feet apart. Roselle is often planted in rows where it forms a dense hedge by mid summer If planted from seed in spring,
On Jul 31, 2006, gregr18 from Bridgewater, MA (Zone 6b) wrote:
If you ever go to a Senegalese restaurant, ask for a drink called Bissap. It is the Senegalese national drink and is made from the dried flowers of this Hibiscus.
I thought it was pretty good, but I forget exactly what it tasted like.
On Jan 9, 2004, anomina from Bradenton, FL (Zone 9b) wrote:
this plant is known all over the caribbean and latin america for the tea made from its flowers which is a popular soft drink. the dried flowers are sold in bulk in the markets and brewed and sweetened to taste. i do not know the chemical properties of the drink but it is very tasty and has the tartness of cranberry. i have grown it here in west central florida and it is quite available if you keep a lookout on the roads or ask other gardeners.
On Jul 15, 2003, nusi from Sebring, FL wrote:
I was born and raised in Sebring Fl. As a child we made what we call the Florida cranberry jam. It is made from the sepals of the seed pod. I am very much interested in obtaining a plant or some seeds. It will not take the cold weather. I do know it will grow here in Sebring as we are about mid state and do not have the extreme cold weather.
I am very fond of the plant. and would like to grow it again. I am retired.
How to Collect Verbena Seeds
Dainty little verbena flowers may look delicate, but they're tough little annuals that love sunshine and won't mind a few dry days. They're versatile plants that do well as a ground cover, edging a flower bed or a sidewalk, or in a container or hanging garden, spreading out and blooming from late spring to the first freeze. Although verbena are readily available as bedding plants, consider starting new plants with seeds you've collected.
Leave a few healthy verbena blooms to die naturally on the plant. As the flowers fade, they will be replaced by light brown clusters that develop on top of the stem.
Pinch the clusters off the plant and let them drop on a paper plate. Put the paper place in a dry, cool spot and let it dry for a week to 10 days.
- Dainty little verbena flowers may look delicate, but they're tough little annuals that love sunshine and won't mind a few dry days.
- Pinch the clusters off the plant and let them drop on a paper plate.
Rub the dry cluster between your fingers, and the tiny, off-white or tan seeds will separate from the dried plant matter, or chaff.
Label a paper envelope or a small paper bag. Drop the seeds in the bag, along with the chaff. Put the seeds in a cool, dry place until spring.
What Causes Seed Degradation?
Multiple types of dry seeds. Source: ICARDA
Like all organic materials, seeds will break down over time.
Most of us learned in grade school about the various parts of a seed. As a refresher, there’s three major parts. The seed coat is the external hard shell of the seed. Inside, there is the plant’s embryo, along with what’s called the endosperm – a source of food to sustain the embryonic plant.
The plant itself is dormant while hidden within its hard external casing if it’s stored properly. In the wrong environment, the plant is going to have a hard time “staying asleep”, so to speak, and may start trying to germinate.
Keeping the plant dormant is important, but even if it is, the endosperm will gradually break down just like any other food product. It is predominantly made of starches, and those last for quite a while, but even they degrade in time.
In addition, some seeds are oil-rich, and the oil can spoil as well. Most often, these are the seeds with the shortest lifespan.
There are other factors which will speed this degradation. Let’s examine these in a bit more detail!
Sunlight is the enemy when storing many organic products. This is doubly true for seeds, because the light stimulates the tiny plant inside the seed. As plants feed on sunlight just as much as they do on the soil, a light source encourages them to try to sprout.
Therefore, it’s essential that you keep your seeds in the dark as much as possible. Opaque containers help quite a lot, but if you don’t have opaque containers, seeds can be stored in a dark environment to prevent as much light exposure as you can avoid.
Maize seed samples at a germplasm bank. Source: CIMMYT
Soil is more than just a source of nutrition for a plant. It’s also what keeps water right at the roots of the plant so the plant’s able to get a drink.
It shouldn’t come as a surprise that moisture can also spur germination. After all, when a seed is below the soil’s surface, light may not penetrate that far, but the moisture will. That’s great if you’re trying to grow alfalfa sprouts, but not so good when you’re trying to store seeds!
Moisture can cause the outer seed wall to soften, which also opens the seed up to the risk of rot. This is the enemy when you’re trying to promote good dormancy. Avoid it as much as possible.
Along with moisture, soil temperature comes as a signal to a seed that it’s germination time. However, your seed doesn’t know the difference between being planted in good potting soil and being stored inside a paper envelope.
Since most plants germinate at temperatures above 60 degrees Fahrenheit, keeping them in conditions below that should prevent your seeds from sprouting.
If it’s warm enough that the plant will normally germinate, you’re running the risk of your preserved seeds not staying dormant. And in non-dormant conditions, they will degrade more quickly.
Have you ever watched a squirrel with an acorn? If so, you know that pests do in fact go after seeds, and there’s a long list. It’s not limited to just rodents like mice, chipmunks, squirrels or rats. Many insects also consume seeds, and of course so do larger animals.
It should go without saying that you need to be proactive. Use some form of pest-proof containers. If they’re moisture and pest proof, that’s even better.
Disclosure: Newair provided their mini-fridge to Epic Gardening to use and evaluate for review purposes. See our review process here.