A properly made chimney not only removes combustion products from the operation of heating devices from the room, but also provides oxygen to the furnace. More recently, when they talked about a chimney, they meant a brick or metal pipe. Now there are many other materials used for its arrangement. Therefore, in order to make the right choice, you first need to familiarize yourself with the existing proposals, the advantages and disadvantages of each material.
Types of materials for the chimney: their pros and cons
Before choosing a material for creating a chimney, you must decide on the type of heating device used. A chimney that will do its job perfectly together with a fireplace or wood-burning stove is not suitable for a gas boiler.
Some people, hearing the word "chimney", imagine a vertical pipe. This is indeed its main element, which most of all affects the high-quality and safe operation of the heating device, but there are other components as well.
The modern chimney has a complex structure, assembled from many parts of the inner pipe. The main parts of the chimney:
- vertical pipe;
- inspection windows - through them, the condition of the chimney is examined;
- pallet - condensate collects in it;
- umbrella (fungus) - protects the pipe from atmospheric precipitation.
The chimney has a complex structure, consists of many connecting elements
The type of fuel used is also of great importance. These can be: firewood, sawdust, coal, gas, peat and others. Each fuel has its own combustion temperature, therefore the temperature of the exhaust gases will differ. To make the chimney safe, the following material characteristics must be taken into account before calculations:
- resistance to corrosion - combustion products contain vapors of sulfur and other harmful substances that negatively affect the material of the chimney. According to the amount of sulfur in the combustion products, there are three classes of chimneys:
- for gas boilers;
- for liquid fuel boilers and wood-fired stoves;
- for solid fuel boilers fired by coal or peat;
- the value of the gas pressure in the chimney - there are two options for draft: natural and forced, so the pressure will depend on the type of heating equipment;
- the possibility of a large amount of condensate formation in the chimney - if a porous material (for example, brick) is used;
- fire resistance - a large amount of soot on the walls of the chimney can ignite. When ignited, the peak temperature reaches 1000 degrees, which not every material can withstand;
The accumulation of soot in the chimney not only narrows the space of the inner duct, weakening the natural draft, but can also lead to a fire
- exhaust gas temperature - depends on the combustion temperature of a particular fuel.
Table: dependence of the flue gas temperature on the type of fuel
|Heater type||Type of fuel||Fuel combustion products temperature, oC|
|Pyrolysis, gas-fired boiler||firewood||160–250|
|Solid fuel boiler||pellets||120–250|
|Solid fuel boiler||sawdust||220–240|
|Solid fuel boiler||coal||500–700|
|A gas boiler||gas||120–200|
|Diesel boiler||diesel fuel||150–250|
For arranging a chimney, experts recommend using specific materials for a certain fuel:
- solid fuel - brick or ceramic pipes: withstand up to 700 oC and a periodic increase in temperature to 1000 oFROM;
- liquid fuel - material that can withstand temperatures up to 250 oC and its increase for a short period up to 400 oC. And when using diesel fuel, the chimney must be highly resistant to the negative effects of aggressive substances that are in the condensate;
- natural or liquefied gas - metal pipes: can withstand temperatures up to 200 oC and its short-term increase to 400 oC. For a gas, these characteristics are quite sufficient.
Therefore, when choosing a material, all the conditions described must be taken into account. Let's take a closer look at several types of pipes for laying a chimney.
One of the best options for a chimney is a ceramic pipe. It is versatile because applies regardless of the type of heater and fuel used.
Ceramic pipe significantly surpasses brickwork in its characteristics, as it is covered with heat-resistant glaze from the inside, which creates a smooth surface
The main advantages of a ceramic pipe installed in a chimney:
- easy to install - easy to cut and drill;
- does not corrode and is resistant to aggressive substances;
- fireproof - covered with heat-resistant glaze inside: soot does not accumulate on a smooth surface. This improves traction and protects against fire;
- has a long service life (up to 40 years) - condensate flows into a special sump without lingering on a smooth surface. Therefore, in winter, from the ingress of cold outside air on the walls of the pipe, there will be no freezing of moisture and cracking of the material;
- does not require complicated cleaning, easy to operate;
- withstands high flue gas temperatures.
The main parts that make up the complete set of the ceramic chimney help to conveniently operate it, making it possible to access different places of the chimney
To make the structure strong, the ceramic pipe is placed in a claydite-concrete shell. A layer of thermal insulation is placed around the ceramic pipe to reduce the formation of condensation and protect the chimney body from high temperatures. It must be remembered that both the ceramic pipe itself and the thermal insulation absorb moisture, so there must be good ventilation in the concrete block. It is provided by special hollow channels.
Concrete blocks installed under a ceramic pipe must be equipped with ventilation ducts.
To further strengthen the structure, reinforcement can be installed in the holes along the edges of the concrete blocks. And the part of the chimney above the roof is reinforced without fail. Rectangular blocks can also be used to restore the functionality of an old brick chimney or create a new one.
There are ceramic pipes in a steel case. There is no need to create a foundation and a separate channel for them.
Asbestos-cement pipes became popular during the Soviet era. This was due to their low cost and availability. And although initially the asbestos pipe was intended for use in agriculture, but during the mass private construction, craftsmen began to build chimneys from them.
Asbestos-cement pipes do not withstand high temperatures and burst, therefore they should be installed only in the middle and final section of the flue.
Asbestos cement is not designed for high temperatures: it can catch fire when it reaches over 300oC. And if there is a fire in the soot in the chimney, then such a chimney is explosive. If, nevertheless, it is decided to use an asbestos pipe as a chimney, then it is impossible to mount it directly near the heater, but it is better to put it closer to the roof.
The result of the explosion of an asbestos pipe clearly shows that it cannot be used in the lower section of the chimney, where it is heated to a critical temperature.
Soot gradually accumulates in any chimney, but the smoother the inner walls, the slower this process takes place. Since asbestos-cement pipes have a rough surface, soot accumulates very quickly in them. Therefore, they need frequent cleaning.
The main disadvantages of asbestos pipes:
- the maximum temperature threshold is 300 oC;
- high porosity - condensate is retained on the pipe walls and soot quickly accumulates;
- low heat capacity - the material heats up easily, which leads to a decrease in traction;
- Difficulty in operation - frequent cleaning is required, but due to the impossibility of installing inspection hatches, this task is difficult.
The asbestos pipe can only be installed at the end of the chimney, away from the heater
Considering the disadvantages described, the use of asbestos pipes to create a chimney can lead to the following problems:
- the formation of cracks - carbon monoxide will begin to flow through them into the room;
- the complexity of sealing the joints - with an internal fire, the fire will burst out, a fire will start in the room;
- disruption of the chimney - up to its explosion.
Although the primary purpose of asbestos-cement pipes was to transport water (they are not afraid of moisture), the material quickly collapses from the effects of condensate in the chimney, since, in addition to water, condensate contains many active substances.
To protect asbestos-cement pipes from temperature changes and overheating, they can be tightly sheathed with brickwork: make a lining.
Cladding (lining) of asbestos pipes with brickwork allows you to extend the service life of the chimney
Galvanized steel pipes are resistant to aggressive effects of condensate and hot furnace gases. The advantage of such a chimney is the low weight of the pipe, therefore it is not necessary to create a reliable foundation, it is enough to securely fix it on the wall.
It is possible to use a galvanized pipe only in a chimney, where the temperature of the exhaust gases is lowered, since heating zinc above 419 degrees is dangerous: it leads to severe poisoning
There are two types of galvanized pipe:
- single-walled - without heat-insulating material;
- double-walled - sandwich pipe: insulation is laid between its walls.
Double-skinned galvanized pipe resistant to condensation
If a galvanized single-wall pipe is mounted outside the house, then it must be insulated well. Otherwise, a lot of condensation will constantly form inside. Only those parts of the pipe that pass through the unheated attic and outside the building are insulated.
A chimney made of a galvanized structure is cheaper than a brick or ceramic pipe. And it's much easier and faster to mount it.
The galvanized chimney pipe is easily attached to the inner walls of the attic due to its low weight
In addition to straight galvanized pipes, the following are used:
- inserts with inspection windows - for the convenience of cleaning the pipe from soot;
- condensate collector;
- knee (different types);
For each specific design of the chimney, different types of elbows are used
- tees (with different connection angles);
Tees with different connection angles are used for the chimney: at 45, 90 and 135 degrees
- rain hood.
The rain hood is attached to the pipe with a compression ring
Galvanized pipes can withstand high temperatures, therefore they are suitable for any type of fuel and have a service life of about 10 years. But the most important point is compliance with the installation technology. Otherwise, such a pipe will begin to rust, passing condensate and fumes at all joints.
The consequences of a violation of the technology for installing a galvanized chimney will be deplorable - the pipe will quickly fail and will no longer be safe
The chimney made of galvanized or stainless steel is easy to clean, since such a pipe has a smooth inner surface and soot practically does not accumulate on it. You can completely make a chimney from a galvanized pipe, but still more often it is connected to a channel in a brick chimney or is used as an insert.
For laying the chimney, welded pipes made of ferrous metal can be used. Their main advantage is their low cost. If we compare it with a brick chimney, then the assembly of a structure from a steel pipe will cost 60-80% cheaper.
A steel pipe for a chimney is inexpensive, but its service life is short.
But using such a pipe to create a chimney has many disadvantages:
- weak corrosion resistance - therefore, a short service life (up to 5 years);
- pipe walls burn out quickly - fire safety decreases;
- high weight due to the increased thickness of steel (compared to aluminum);
- accumulation of a large amount of condensate.
A steel pipe chimney has more disadvantages than advantages. Therefore, experts do not recommend using this material in a private home.
A steel pipe can be delivered when you really want to save money. But we must be prepared that it will not last long. Steel is more suitable for a chimney in a utility room or garage, where the heater is rarely used.
Recently, sandwich chimneys have become popular. Painted aluminum is used for their manufacture. During use, such a pipe does not heat up to a high temperature, so the paint does not peel off. The surface retains its original appearance for a long time. Most manufacturers give a guarantee for at least 5 years, but the aluminum sandwich chimney will last much longer.
The aluminum pipe cannot be used in the chimney for gas boilers: in 2 months the condensate will burn through it
The main advantages of heat resistant aluminum pipes:
- light weight - installation is quick;
- high resistance to corrosion;
- long service life.
Almost the only drawback of these pipes is their high cost.
There is a large selection of color solutions for aluminum pipes, so this chimney will go well with any roofing material.
This is a traditional solution that is still being implemented today. The brick chimney is erected during the construction phase of the building. The advantages of brick construction:
- fire safety - has good fire resistance;
- attractive appearance.
When erecting a brick chimney, it is important to make high-quality seams, creating the tightness of the masonry
Among the disadvantages of a brick chimney, it is worth noting:
- heavy weight - a strong foundation is needed;
- the complexity of the construction;
- porous structure - soot accumulates quickly; condensation gradually destroys the masonry;
- high cost of materials.
Despite these disadvantages, the brick chimney remains popular in the construction of private houses. And to remove the flaws, you can install a stainless or galvanized steel pipe inside it.
Other chimney materials
Also, to create chimneys can be used:
- glass pipes - until recently, when people heard about glass chimney pipes, people would say that this is not possible. But modern technologies are constantly evolving, and now the glass chimney is a reality. Heat-resistant glass is not afraid of exposure to high temperatures and corrosive substances. Disadvantages: high cost and the need to properly seal the joints and insulate the chimney. Therefore, this option is not very popular;
A glass chimney is rarely made in homes, therefore it is an unusual decoration of the room.
- polymer pipes - have high performance characteristics. However, they can only be used at a combustion product temperature of no more than 250 degrees. They are usually used for gas boilers;
Polymer pipes have a long service life, but are not yet sufficiently heat-resistant
- concrete blocks - only special factory blocks made of heat-resistant composition are reliable. It is impossible to make such at home, and ordinary concrete is not suitable for high temperatures. The chimney made of heat-resistant brick blocks can withstand a temperature of 400 oC and more, it is not afraid of the negative effects of condensation, has a service life of more than 25 years. Special components are added to the composition of concrete, therefore the thermal insulation characteristics of such pipes are high. Minus: heavy weight (requires the creation of a powerful foundation). But they perfectly resist wind loads;
A chimney made of concrete blocks is assembled like a constructor and does not require special skills
- vermiculite pipes - inside the stainless steel pipe there is a layer of a mineral called "vermiculite" with a thickness of 50 mm. Pros: good thermal insulation material, easy to install, inert to combustion products, with a long service life. Disadvantage: Soot builds up quickly on the walls, so frequent cleaning is required.
Vermiculite pipes have a special moisture and heat resistant coating of the working surface
Before choosing a material for building a chimney, it is important to take into account the design of the heater used in the future and the type of fuel. It is better to think over all these nuances at the stage of building a house.
Video: rating of materials used for the construction of a modern chimney
Pipe selection according to technical solution
In addition to the fact that various materials can be used to create a chimney, a technical solution must also be taken into account when making a choice.
Usually the chimney is made with many bends and turns, and connectors are used to create it. It takes a lot of time and money to assemble such a chimney, so the use of corrugated pipes is an alternative solution.
Aluminum corrugated pipe - flexible construction with a diameter of 100–150 mm. It is made of multilayer foil. And to give it more rigidity, a steel wire is inserted inside.
Corrugated pipes are easy to transport, since when folded, their length is only 65 cm, and when stretched, it turns out to be 2.5–3 m. If you need a longer length, then several pipes are connected with metal tape.
Aluminum corrugated pipes cannot be used at temperatures above 110 degrees, therefore, they cannot be used for solid fuel boilers or fireplaces
Corrugated stainless steel pipes are made from individual strips with a thickness of 0.12 to 1 mm. The strips are twisted in a spiral, and connected to each other with a lock seam. This allows them to shrink and stretch. They are used to create an internal or external chimney, and also serve as adapters.
With the help of a corrugated pipe, you can restore an old brick chimney: it is inserted into a brick pipe and fed to the boiler.
Corrugated pipes are used not only for heating, but also for gas supply, fire extinguishing and other household needs.
Advantages of a corrugated chimney:
- no need to use expensive connecting elements;
- installed inside or outside the house;
- ease of installation;
- flexibility of the pipe;
- light weight;
- the ability to use it to restore the functionality of brick chimneys;
- affordable cost.
Among the disadvantages it should be noted:
- shorter service life than that of chimneys from rigid pipes - walls are too thin;
- requires additional insulation;
- may bend from mechanical stress.
The word "coaxial" means "one inside the other" when one pipe is mounted inside another.
Both pipes do not touch each other, but are only connected by a thin bridge. Such a chimney is combined with a gas or other boiler, which has a closed combustion chamber.
The coaxial chimney performs two functions at the same time:
- removes fuel combustion products outside using an inner pipe;
- supplies air to the chamber to support the combustion process through an external pipe.
Usually its length does not exceed 2 meters. The design includes the following elements:
- straight pipes;
- condensate collector - prevents the resulting moisture from entering the fuel combustion chamber;
- tee - for connecting the pipe and the boiler;
- cleaning - needed to clean the chimney;
- cap - protects the pipe from wind and precipitation.
The coaxial chimney takes air for burning gas fuel from the street, and not from the room
The advantages of such a chimney:
- heated air enters the boiler, which reduces heat loss;
- high efficiency of the boiler allows you to burn fuel as much as possible;
- the pipe does not overheat, therefore, if flammable objects come into contact with it, ignition will not occur;
- since the boiler has a closed combustion chamber, the smell of smoke and carbon monoxide does not get into the room;
- small size - the area of the room is saved;
- ease of installation.
Single wall chimney pipe
The cost of a single wall pipe is small. But even this money does not want to be wasted.
Single-walled pipes do not have a heat-insulating layer, so they are cheaper than double-walled pipes. For their manufacture, acid-resistant steel is used, which allows to increase the service life of the material.
In some cases, these pipes replace the old flue gas system. But most often they are placed inside an active brick chimney in order to protect it.
In order for the pipe to fit easily inside the main chimney, its diameter should be slightly smaller than the size of the existing duct.
The pros of this design:
- easy installation;
- rapid heating of the pipe - there is an uninterrupted emission of combustion products at a maximum speed, which increases the efficiency of the boiler;
- slow settling of soot - the smooth inner surface of the pipe does not need frequent cleaning.
Application of sandwich pipes for chimneys
Sandwich pipes got their name due to the fact that one pipe is placed in another, and a layer of insulation is laid between them. Such products have precise dimensions, which simplifies and speeds up the process of installing the chimney.
The presence of good thermal insulation plays a sound-absorbing role and protects the sandwich pipe from condensation. The thickness of the layer of heat-insulating material is from 25 to 100 mm. Most often, vermiculite or basalt wool is used for this.
The sandwich pipe can be installed both inside and outside the building, does not require additional insulation
The construction is made of high quality stainless steel. The diameter of the walls is within 0.5–1 mm. For the inner pipe, stainless steel with a high molybdenum content is used, therefore it resists the negative effects of aggressive substances well.
Sandwich pipes are good for chimneys where the temperature of the exhaust gases reaches 600 degrees. Thanks to the use of plasma welding, the seams of such a chimney are durable and reliable. However, the service life of sandwich pipes is not very long.
Video: how to choose a chimney and install it correctly
Chimney cross-section dimensions
With a rectangular section of the chimney, swirls are possible, since part of the smoke enters the corners, where its movement slows down. This leads to a deterioration in traction. Therefore, for boilers requiring strong draft, a round tube is suitable.
For fireplaces and wood-burning stoves, the optimal chimney section is considered to be rectangular or square. And to improve its performance, you can use lining (covering the inner or outer surface of the chimney) or sleeve (installing a metal pipe inside a brick chimney).
For an industrially manufactured boiler, the required chimney diameter is indicated in the product passport.
The diameter of the chimney must correspond to the power of the heater
Since a strong draft is not needed in a wood-burning stove, the chimney diameter is calculated approximately, but taking into account the following recommendations:
- the inner diameter directly depends on the dimensions of the firebox, the length and width of the chimney should be proportional to the corresponding dimensions of the firebox in a ratio of 1: 1.5;
- the chimney area cannot be less than the blower area;
- if the combustion chamber is open, then good draft is needed. Then the ratio of the diameter of the chimney and the area of the furnace should be 1:10;
- the minimum chimney size depends on the power of the stove:
- power up to 3.4 kW - 140x140 mm;
- power 3.5-5.2 kW - 140x200 mm;
- power 5.2-7.2 kW - 140x270 mm.
The cross-sectional area of a round chimney cannot be less than the area of the corresponding rectangular ducts. When calculating the diameter of the chimney, it is recommended that for 1 kW of boiler power there is 8 cm2 section of the pipe. Knowing the cross-sectional area of the pipe, you can determine its diameter.
For example: the boiler power is 10 kW, then the chimney section should be 10 * 8 = 80 cm2 .
To determine the diameter, the formula is used: D = √ 4 * S smoke / π, where:
- D is the inner diameter of the pipe (cm);
- S smoke - the area of the internal section of the chimney, (cm²).
D = √ 4 * 80 / π = 10 cm.
Video: calculating a chimney for a stove
There is no perfect material for creating a chimney, as all have their own merits and demerits. In each specific case, when choosing a material, many factors must be taken into account: the type of heating equipment, the fuel used, the features of the placement of the boiler in the room, and others. And you also need to measure your financial capabilities. You shouldn't give your last money for an ultra-modern chimney, but you can't buy the cheapest one either. The chimney is the main component of a home's heating system, so it must be safe and efficiently serve its purpose.
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Chimney for the boiler. Make or buy?
The question is almost Hamlet's, but it needs detailed consideration. The article, using the example of practical experience, describes how to solve this problem when installing a boiler room in your home. However paradoxical it may seem, the article can be useful both to those who plan and can afford to buy a chimney, and to those who have planned to make a chimney with their own hands.
For the first, the article will be useful in that the information provided in it will make it possible to correctly formulate an order for the manufacture of a chimney, and when installing a chimney, at least make sure that there are no "blunders" on the part of the performers.
Those who plan to make a chimney with their own hands will find useful information in the article in terms of the practical implementation of work.
In order not to waste time on theory, which is abundant on the Internet, I will only note the main thing: The impact of the chimney on safety is such that the correctness of its operation will be checked by the Fire Supervision authorities with the issuance of a written act, without which you simply will not be connected to the gas networks.
From a technical, environmental and practical point of view, copper pipes are best suited for a water supply system. Copper is a natural material used by humans for thousands of years to transport and store water. This material is inert to drinking water and oxygen dissolved in it, and it is also bacteriostatic - that is, it prevents biological overgrowth of pipes, suppressing the growth of bacteria inside them.
Copper pipes have smooth inner walls and, as a result, are less prone to salt deposits than steel pipes. To connect copper pipes, the capillary brazing method is usually used, which gives a connection reliability comparable to the quality of professional crimping.
Compared to plastic pipes, copper pipes are more durable and, in principle, are not subject to aging, which guarantees a long service life of copper pipes, often exceeding the life of the building itself.
The widespread use of copper pipes is hampered by their only disadvantage - the high price. However, if we take into account the cost of operating, repairing and replacing communications in the long term (for capital buildings), then copper turns out to be the most attractive material. Low cost of fittings is an additional advantage of a copper pipeline with its small length and a large number of branches.
The best pipes for a heating system
The heating system should not change its performance under the influence of high temperatures and pressures, and should have a low thermal linear expansion. It should be borne in mind that the coolant can be not only chemically neutral water, but also antifreeze. Piping must be resistant to chemical attack. All these requirements are met by reinforced polypropylene pipes for heating, reinforced with aluminum foil or composite fiberglass.
Experts analyzed the products of 11 domestic and foreign brands. Based on the test results, 4 best brands were selected, the products of which meet the current SNiPs. They are able to ensure trouble-free operation of the heat supply system.
FV Plast Faser 20
Universal pipes of the Czech company Faser for water and heat supply with an outer diameter of 20 mm. Recommended for transporting heat carrier heated to a temperature of 95 ° C. The walls are 3.4 mm thick and are fiberglass-reinforced.
The one-piece construction converts polypropylene into a composite material and can withstand 20PN pressure. The inner surface is polypropylene PP-R, which provides high hygiene and low resistance to the flow of the heating medium. Supplied with 4 m long rods, which makes transportation easy and convenient.
- High bending stiffness
- Low linear thermal expansion
- Does not need to be stripped when welding during installation
- Resistance to aggressive substances
- Low roughness of internal walls.
- Shortage of products in specialized stores.
Minimal linear expansion allows for shorter support spacing. This simplifies installation and reduces costs.
Dizayn Sirena PN-20
A Turkish company produces polypropylene pipes for heating a private house from European and Russian raw materials. PP-R 100 is used, which is safe for human health.
During installation, socket welding with a soldering iron is used. The recommended coolant temperature is 95 ° C. High strength characteristics can withstand 20PN pressure.
Supplied with whips 4 m long. Produced at the Russian plant in Alabuga, the quality of the products complies with the current SNiPs.
- Service life exceeds 50 years
- Low price
- Simple assembly
- Low flow resistance
- Wide range of fittings.
- Lack of reinforcement.
Kalde Orange (3202-tfr-500000)
Kalde has been producing polypropylene pipes and components at its factories in Turkey since 2002 and is the leading exporter of these products in its country, supplying them to European markets.
The Orange line is created from European-made polypropylene. Fiberglass is used for reinforcement, which increases strength, reduces linear expansion. Recommended for heating systems of cottages with a maximum heating medium temperature of 75 ° C.
- Wall thickness 8.3 mm
- Stable cross-section geometry
- Simple assembly
- Wear resistance.
- The maximum pressure in the system is 10PN.
Valtec PP-Fiber PN 20 Vtp.700.FB20.20
Valtec manufactures a full range of plumbing equipment for heating systems, offering the best technical support to customers. The PP-Fiber PN 20 series is distinguished by effective fiberglass reinforcement, a wall thickness of 2.8 mm and the ability to transport a heat carrier heated to + 90 ° C. The maximum allowed pressure in the system, when using pipes of this series, should not exceed 20PN.
- Low linear expansion at high temperatures
- Simple assembly
- Good elasticity
- Up to 10 years warranty for elbows.
Polypropylene pipes are available in one or two layers. The former are suitable for ordinary water supply, the latter for hot and heating.Two-layer ones consist of a certain type of polypropylene, inside which a reinforcing foil layer is laid. They are connected by a special welding and an adhesive layer, and therefore material delamination is excluded.
Advice. When buying, you need to clarify the type of foil and the method of production. There are subspecies of reinforced polypropylene that must be cleaned before welding, which creates difficulties and slows down the work.
During installation, the pipe parts and the fitting are welded together with a special tool. The parts, placed in the heating nozzle, begin to melt and, after being combined, “stick together”, forming a single whole. The peculiarity of the method is considered to be the complete absence of seams, which is why leaks at the joints are completely excluded.
- affordable cost of material and fitting. For plumbing, you can purchase the simplest option, without a reinforced layer, which is inferior to the latter in price
- ease of installation: the ability to rotate at any angle, bend the pipe somewhat, etc.
- ease of welding. If desired, it is easy to learn the welding process yourself
- corrosion resistance. The plastic is not affected by impurities and salts
- no resistance due to smooth surface.
- the maximum temperature of the heat carrier should not exceed 80 ºС. The exception is another propylene class (PPS), which can withstand up to 95 ° C
- when the coolant passes over 60 ° C, they can be deformed. Propylene expands from heating, after which it does not return to its original state. As a result, the pipes can "sag".
Why does the chimney need a "fur coat"
The chimney pipe can run indoors, in the wall or on the outside of the wall.
Chimney pipe running along the outer wall of the house
If the smoke channel runs along the wall on the street, it must necessarily have insulation of sufficient thickness so that the gaseous combustion products do not cool too quickly from contact with the cold walls of the pipe. Cooling down, flue gases slow down their movement, which means they impair traction. In addition, the rapid cooling of gases leads to an increase in the amount of condensate formed.
For chimneys, it is better to use pipes with thermal insulation.
However, it is better to use insulated pipes in the case of the passage of the pipe in the room. The heat of waste gases in solid fuel boilers is already taken away to the maximum by the heat exchanger, but this is useful to increase the efficiency of the device.
Condensate trap on the chimney. Photo from roofs.club
As already mentioned, in solid fuel boilers, the temperature of the exhaust gases is significantly lower than in stoves or fireplaces. Therefore, despite the thermal insulation of the chimney, condensation still forms. For this reason, the boiler flue pipe is always equipped with a condensate collector - a device that accumulates condensate and allows it to be drained periodically.
Cast iron pipes
Cast iron pipes for sewerage
When listing the types of metal pipes used for the installation of sewage systems, one cannot fail to mention cast iron products. Since it is cast-iron pipes that have been the main material for the assembly of sewer networks for decades. The main advantages of this material are:
- Durability and long service life
- Corrosion resistant.
The disadvantages of the material include:
- Large weight, which makes it difficult to transport the material and its installation.
- Relatively high fragility. Cast iron pipes do not tolerate shock loads.
- The inability to use for laying an external pipeline in saline soils, since the soil brine quickly destroys the material.
- Rough inner surface, which makes pipes clog faster.
Advice! Manufacturers today produce improved polymer-coated cast iron pipes. As a result, the pipes acquire an ideal smoothness of the inner surface and increased resistance to corrosion.
Asbestos cement pipes
For the production of such pipes, a mixture of asbestos fiber with Portland cement is used. The advantages of these products:
- Resistant to corrosive processes.
- Simplicity of machining, which greatly facilitates installation.
- Long service life.
- Smoothness of the inner surface.
- Asbestos cement is a dielectric, therefore, this material is not subject to electrochemical corrosion.
Asbestos-cement pipes have disadvantages, these are, first of all:
- The fragility of the material. When working with pipes made of asbestos cement, you have to be extremely careful and accurate.
- Under the influence of soil, the outer surface of the pipes quickly collapses, therefore protective measures must be taken.
Ceramic pipes for sewerage
Ceramic pipes resemble cast iron pipes in their properties, however, they are lighter and one hundred percent resistant to corrosion. The undoubted advantage of ceramic pipes is their resistance to high temperatures and aggressive media - acids and alkalis.
However, the material is quite fragile, therefore it is necessary to carefully handle the pipes during loading, transportation and during installation. In addition, mechanical processing of pipes (cutting) is difficult to perform; when trying to cut the pipe, it can simply crack.
PVC sewer pipes
Today, various types of plastic pipes for sewage are widely used. For the manufacture of such products, three types of polymers are used:
PVC pipes are designed for gravity drainage systems. The material is strong enough to withstand high loads. PVC pipes are widely used for the installation of outdoor systems, since they are inexpensive, able to withstand aggressive environments, and are resistant to ultraviolet radiation. But pipes do not tolerate the effects of temperatures above 70 degrees, at very low temperatures PVC becomes brittle, so it is recommended to insulate them.
Advice! It is not recommended to use PVC pipes for internal pipelines. The fact is that when ignited, this material releases the extremely poisonous gas phosgene.
Various types of polypropylene pipes are widely used to assemble sewerage systems. These pipes have a long service life and can be used for both gravity and pressure systems.
It is necessary to distinguish between the types of propylene pipes intended for indoor and outdoor pipelines. The first type of pipes was created for use in the home, they are strong enough, but they are not able to withstand the effects of low temperatures and the loads exerted by the soil.
Plastic inner sewer pipes
For external pipelines, special types of pipes are produced - two-layer. Their inner layer is perfectly smooth, and the outer layer is corrugated, so the pipes are characterized by increased strength.
When assembling sewerage systems, different types of polyethylene pipes are increasingly used. This material is mainly used for the installation of non-pressure systems. The great advantage of this material is its high elasticity, when the liquid in the pipe freezes, polyethylene does not collapse, but only deforms.
Reinforced plastic pipes
For the assembly of various systems, including sewage systems, various types of metal-plastic pipes are widely used. These pipes are plastic coated, so they are 100% corrosion resistant, chemically neutral and easy to handle.
At the same time, the presence of a metal core gives these products increased mechanical strength. The disadvantages of the material include their rather high cost.
The most important stage
Everything is ready to start lighting the fireplace. This process is considered a highlight, as it requires a certain skill and endurance. Many amateurs are skeptical about modern means of automatic ignition, considering it unnatural. However, not everyone is able to light wood “with one match”. Therefore, you should follow all the recommendations that start with the methods of stacking firewood:
- If the fireplace is not fired up for the first time, then you should not remove all ash from the previous use from the grate. A small layer of it serves as an excellent thermal insulation protection. It will protect the fireplace body from overheating and prevent cold air from entering the firebox through the ash pan.
- Any kindling of the fireplace begins with the laying of firewood. The classic method involves laying on small branches or splinters of thicker ones. Gradually, the wood pyramid is formed by logs of larger diameter. The most important thing is to leave enough space between the layers to allow air access.
Preparing to light a fire
- Reverse installation is an alternative method. It consists in putting thick logs on the bottom. Thinner firewood is placed perpendicular to them. Alternating the direction of the location and reducing the diameter of the firewood, we come to the fact that there will be a small kindling on top. As a result, the fire will move from top to bottom. This method gives the effect of a closed firebox, that is, prolonged burning of wood, and therefore a greater release of heat.
- Before lighting the fireplace, it is necessary to check the draft again. If the room is cool enough, there may be no draft due to cold and damp air in the chimney. , when you will carry out the ignition, you need to open the forward valve in the pipe and warm up the air using an old newspaper. After the appearance of the draft, you can begin to heat the fireplace. Make sure the blower or ash pan door is open.
- It is convenient to light firewood with paper. Roll it up and light it with a match. Then bring it to a wood well and slip it between it and a layer of old ash. When the wood starts to burn on its own, you will have to close the glass screen, if any, so that sparks do not fly outside the space bounded by the firebox.
Heating a fireplace with wood is a big responsibility. Failure to do so may result in heat loss or fire. It is necessary to correctly assess the intensity of combustion. It can be adjusted by opening or closing the ash pan door. Usually, the correct combustion mode is accompanied by the crackling of wood and a slight hum of the escaping warm air in the chimney. A strong buzz is a sign of excessive draft and will lead to the fact that the wood quickly burns out, and all the heat evaporates into the chimney.
You can assess the position of the blower door by the color of the flame of a fired fireplace, it should be bright yellow. An increase in brightness, up to white, indicates an excess of oxygen, a dark flame indicates its deficiency.
Do not try to fill the firebox with a lot of wood. The burning time will hardly increase from this, and all the heat will go "into the pipe". In addition, you run the risk of ruining the fireplace. The cracks that have appeared in the bricks from their strong heating can no longer be repaired with anything, smoke will constantly break through them.
Live fire in an open hearth
You cannot use different methods to extinguish the fire in the fireplace. The temperature drop can burst the finishing materials of the firebox. The logs must themselves burn out and go out. As a last resort, if you urgently need to leave the house, you should remove the embers and extinguish them outside the fireplace.
The chimney valve must not be shut off immediately, as carbon monoxide is still emitted from the embers. But an open view will lead to a loss of heat, so you should look for a neutral solution - close it a couple of hours after the fireplace has cooled down.
The rules suggesting how to properly heat a fireplace are also relevant if this fireplace is on coal. The only difference is in the kindling process. To light a coal-fired fireplace, you should light chips and splinters, on which a special coal for the fireplace is superimposed in a small layer. After waiting for a steady flame, feel free to add large coarse coal and adjust the draft as described above.
Coal is much harder to light than firewood, so chemical pills are often needed. Modern fireplaces are equipped with electric and gas igniters.
Everyone should think about how to properly heat a fireplace stove. This issue is about safety, not just energy efficiency. First of all, improper use of the firebox can lead to irreparable consequences when a fire destroys all the most expensive.
But the most dangerous enemy is carbon monoxide, which a person does not feel. Poisoning can occur during sleep if the chimney view is closed early. When using a fireplace, this happens less often, since the volumes of fuel burned are small compared to a stove, but these rules should be observed in any case.
By adhering to these rules, your fireplace will always delight with its playful and enchanted sparkle.
- The chimney must always be free of tar and other foreign debris.
- Use dry wood as fuel and, if possible, without tar
- When firing up the fireplace, you should not throw firewood over the fireplace. when flaring up, a strong release of tongues of flame and smoke from the furnace itself may occur
- Not heat the fireplace
birch, because due to the large amount of tar, it smokes very much
- When the fireplace is on, do not create a draft in the room. Do not slam doors and windows hard
- It is not recommended to use softwood firewood, as they spark and heavily pollute the chimney with soot. Open fireplaces can only be heated with dry, non-resinous (birch, aspen) logs no more than 2/3 of the depth of the combustion chamber in length. Fireplaces must not be heated with coniferous species (without a fencing mesh), since when the resin of the wood boils, coals are thrown out of the fireplace.
- It is also prohibited to use coal as fuel.
- Do not rush to close the chimney, make sure that all the firewood is completely burnt out
- Do not extinguish the coals with water! The fireplace should go out on its own
- If in the spring the fireplace began to smoke heavily, it is possible that a bird's nest was arranged in the chimney. To prevent this from repeating in the future, a fine mesh is placed at the top of the pipe.
Before lighting the fireplace or stove, clean the fuel chamber and ash pan from ash. Open the latch, put small dry firewood on the iron grate. Open the blower door slightly, and then set fire to the wood.
If from the fireplace poured sparks
and embers. Keep a dry chemical multipurpose fire extinguisher in your home. You will need it if sparks and embers fall from the firebox. It is necessary to immediately call the fire department to localize the fire source. When the fire in the fireplace is extinguished, all dampers and views should be closed. Cover the brow of the firebox with plasterboard or a sheet of iron
Load the firebox with basic firewood. Close the firebox door and open the blower door completely (only during firing up.). The firewood for the firebox must be dry (18 months of drying in a wind dryer under a canopy), chopped into logs of approximately the same thickness (7-9 cm). They should be laid tightly, in horizontal rows. This arrangement promotes uniform combustion.
Re-loading of fuel is carried out when the firewood of the first bookmark has burned out to the stage of coarse coals (after about 30-40 minutes). As soon as the heat is enough, close the blower, open the firebox door and quickly fill the firebox with logs. Close the fire door and open the blower. In the intervals between loads, do not open the firebox door, cold air, which enters the firebox in large quantities, cools the stove.
The combustion process must be regulated by a blower and a valve.Burning wood should be calm, without hum, the flame should be light yellow (straw) color. The appearance of a bright white flame indicates that excess air enters the firebox - you need to reduce the air leakage by closing the blower door. If the color of the flame darkens, it means that the combustion process is unfavorable due to lack of air. In this case, you need to open the blower door.
... When buying a fireplace, you must purchase a smoke alarm. The signaling device will help to detect a fire in time and raise the alarm in a timely manner.
If birch firewood was used for the furnace, then the last laying should be made with aspen, since aspen firewood forms a long flame and burns out the soot formed when burning birch firewood. Alder firewood does not form soot.
After the last bookmark has burned out, you should shovel the coals onto the grate for faster afterburning. It is possible to close the pipe valve only after all the coals have burned out (the coals begin to darken and blue lights do not appear above them), in order to avoid the formation of carbon monoxide. If the valve is not closed in time, heat will leak through the open pipe. If by the end of the firebox one or two unburned embers remain among the coals, then there is no need to wait for them to burn out, but it is better to remove them and extinguish them. Cold air, penetrating through the grate, not covered with fuel, can significantly cool the furnace.
If a heat the stove correctly
, then you cannot overheat it. Signs of furnace overheating: cast iron fittings have a red color from high temperatures, rapid burnout of the paintwork, brick walls are heated to temperatures above 90 ° C.
It can be said without exaggeration that improper operation of stoves and fireplaces increases fuel consumption by 15-20%. This means that every fifth cubic meter of burned firewood flies into the chimney without useful recoil. Meanwhile, the rules for operating the furnaces are simple, and it is not at all difficult to follow them.
How to properly heat fireplaces
With the onset of cold weather, a cozy fire in a wood-burning fireplace will warm the house and cheer up.
But why is one fireplace more useful and less useful from another? Of course, heat transfer depends on the type of fireplace, the size of the firebox and the material from which it is made. However, you should not look for the reason in a bad choice - perhaps proper home care will solve the problem.