Features of growing, planting and varieties of strawberries

Features of growing, planting and varieties of strawberries

Strawberries, strawberries, look from under the leaf!

Strawberries of the Dutch variety Vima Rina

Strawberry - one of the most widespread and popular berry crops. The ability to grow in various environmental conditions, high profitability of cultivation, ease of reproduction, early maturity and many other positive qualities of culture allowed it to spread throughout Russia, where it began to be cultivated already in the 18th century.

Strawberries are a valuable source of vitamins, mineral and organic compounds. Berries contain up to 10% sugars, about 1.3% organic acids, potassium, calcium, iron, iodine, phosphorus and copper salts, up to 750 mg% P-active substances, up to 120 mg% vitamin C and up to 5% folic acid (vitamin B9). The consumption of fresh fruits in food eliminates the signs of vitamin deficiency, improves blood circulation, reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases, salt deposits, kidney and liver diseases.

Decoctions and infusions of fruits, leaves and flowers of strawberries can be used for tonsillitis, inflammation of the gums and mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract. In cosmetology, strawberries are often used in the form of cosmetic masks.

Two-line landing pattern

Despite the highest demand for strawberries on the market, Russia does not even rank 20th among other producing countries (USA, Germany, Italy, Turkey, Japan, Spain, Poland, etc.) in the production of fruits of this crop per capita, producing less than 1.5 kg of fruit per person per year. But the average annual consumption of strawberries by a person today is 3.8 kg.

The world leader in strawberry production is Spain, where more than 7 kg of berries are produced per person. Strawberries are relatively frost-hardy, in snowless winters they can tolerate temperature drops down to -15 ... 20 ° С. In frosty winters, a stable snow cover with a thickness of more than 20 cm is able to protect plants from temperatures down to -35 ° C.

The yield of this crop is determined by the varietal specifics and agrotechnical growing conditions. The genetic characteristics of the strawberry variety affect the number of horns on the plant, peduncles, flowers and the mass of berries. Agrotechnical conditions for growing strawberries affect the strength of the development of flower stalks, the degree and quality of berry setting. Therefore, you should not think that you can get a high-quality harvest of garden strawberries only by selecting modern highly productive varieties.

Four-line landing pattern

The key to a high yield of strawberries is early planting of high-quality seedlings in a well-lit area, timely protection of plantings from diseases and pests, irrigation and feeding. The main way of propagation of strawberries is vegetative, with the help of mustaches - modified shoots.

The degree of whisker formation is a varietal trait that can be stimulated by removing the inflorescences. Conversely, if the mustache is removed, the yield increases. Remaining strawberry varieties are characterized by a weak ability to form whiskers.

The optimum soil moisture for strawberries is 70-80%. Irrigation is required in all areas of its cultivation. Watering is required before flowering, during the growth of ovaries, before ripening of berries, after harvest and in autumn to increase the winter hardiness of plants.

To select an assortment of cultivated varieties, it is necessary to take into account their zoning, winter hardiness, yield, large-fruitiness, taste of berries, resistance to pests and diseases, transportability.

Using a lightproof
mulching material

For cultivation of strawberries, medium loamy soils with a neutral reaction of the environment are optimal. Arid land plots and areas with spring stagnation of water are unsuitable for planting. In areas located in lowlands, strawberries will die from frost. Strawberries should not be grown in one place for more than 3-4 years.

The most common planting method is one-line, according to the 60x15 cm scheme. The resulting whiskers are shifted to a row, forming stripes up to 30-40 cm wide.

Sometimes two-, three- and four-line planting patterns are used (60 cm between rows, 30 cm between lines and 15 cm between plants in a line). Recently, in industrial plantings of strawberries, mulching with an opaque film or non-woven material has been widely used. In this case, the seedlings are planted in two lines 85 + 35x15 cm.

With a short service life of fruiting plantings of strawberries, seedlings can be planted somewhat denser.

The use of opaque polyethylene film contributes to early and high yields, prevents weeds from infesting the site, retains moisture and heat in the soil.

Mulching row spacings with straw

Planting strawberries

The best dates for planting strawberries are summer (until August 20) and spring (from late April to May 10). During these periods, there is the most favorable combination of weather conditions (sufficient humidity of air and soil) conducive to good survival and further development of seedlings.

For amateur gardeners, summer planting of strawberries is better. Indeed, for spring planting, it is difficult for them to save planting material. In addition, seedlings not dug out in autumn from mother plants weaken them. When planting strawberries in spring, this area does not give the gardener any production for the whole summer. And with summer planting, the plants take root better, by the fall the bushes develop a good root system. In the spring, at the beginning of the new season, they begin to grow together and already give the first harvest. However, it must be remembered that it is impossible to be late with planting strawberries, otherwise the bushes will not create a good root system and will freeze out in winter. They can also freeze out in years with snowless winters.

To protect fruiting plantations from low temperatures in winter, mulching with peat or sawdust is carried out in the rows - 25 t / ha or 250 kg per hundred square meters. In early spring, to avoid etiolation (discoloration) of the leaves, the mulch is removed. In an industrial setting, the best time for planting strawberries is the end of April - beginning of May. Autumn planting in years with snowless winters often freezes over.

Strawberry seedlings

The so-called frigo seedlings are planted in spruce - after winter storage in specialized storage facilities. Of course, summer residents have nowhere to store it, and therefore it is best to plant seedlings immediately after digging, especially since frigo is more expensive. However, frigo seedlings have their advantages. The crop can be obtained in the year of planting, but this does not work everywhere, a high level of agricultural technology is required, drip irrigation with fertilizing, etc. The winter hardiness of strawberries can be increased if you use a covering non-woven material in the fall.

Before planting strawberries, it is recommended to add up to 150 t / ha (1500 kg per hundred square meters) of manure to the soil. In the second year of fruiting, fertilizing is carried out with ammonium nitrate - 150 kg / ha (1.5 kg per hundred square meters), superphosphate - 250 kg / ha (2.5 kg per hundred square meters), potassium chloride - 100 kg / ha (1 kg per hundred square meters) ...

Strawberry seedlings should be planted so that the apical bud is at the level of the soil surface. It should not be allowed to fall asleep with earth and bare roots when planting seedlings too shallowly. Fruiting areas of strawberries must be constantly watered, periodically loosened the soil, weed, treat pests and diseases, apply fertilizers, etc. In early spring, it is necessary to remove last year's dry leaves of strawberries, which are the source of infection.

Vima Zanta variety

Immediately after harvesting, in areas of the second or third year of fruiting, strawberry leaves are mowed at a height of 5 cm from the soil surface; lower mowing can lead to damage to the horns. This technique helps to increase the number of horns laid, increases the yield of strawberries for the next year and prevents the development and spread of pests and diseases.

To select an assortment, you need to know how the selected variety is adapted to the unfavorable conditions of the growing place, what is its potential yield, quality and marketability of fruits, resistance to diseases, etc.

Like other fruit crops, strawberry varieties Distinguish by the timing of the ripening of the crop in early, middle and late. In addition, there is a varietal gradation in relation to the length of daylight hours. According to it, varieties of short, long and neutral days are divided.

In the Central region of Russia, short-day varieties prevail, for them a ten-hour daylight hours and temperatures from 10 to 20 ° C are sufficient.

To lay flower buds of remontant strawberry varieties, the length of daylight hours should be more than 15 hours. Most varieties are self-fertile - they have bisexual flowers. The flowering periods of strawberries, ripening of berries from the moment of pollination and fruiting can last up to 30 days.

Honey variety

Varieties with neutral daylight hours, as a rule, are small-fruited diploids, since they originated from the forest strawberry Fragaria vesca L. var. semperflorens Duch. The formation of the generative sphere of such varieties does not depend on the length of the day. Large-fruited varieties are octoploids, their origin is associated with the result of hybridization of Virginia and Chilean strawberries.

In the central part of Russia, the following varieties are widespread: early - Kokinskaya early, Kama, Zefir, Granatovaya; middle - Zenith, Festivalnaya, Pendant, Maryshka, Yield TsGL, Nadezhda; late - Zenga-Zengana, Elsanta, Red Gauntlet, Zenith, Talisman, Festival chamomile, etc.

From remontant varieties are grown: Oktyabrsky, Fakel Mira, Inexhaustible, Sakhalin and others.

In the North-West of Russia, strawberry varieties have proven themselves well: Festivalnaya, Zarya, Generous, Tsarskoselskaya, Onega, Severnaya yielding, Nadezhda, Cinderella, Beauty Zagorya, Kokinskaya early, Vityaz, Scarlet Dawn, Redgontlet, Favorite, Carmen, Sudarushka, Junia Smides, Wonderful, Gourmet, Zenga Zengana, Polka and others.

Recently, varieties of Dutch selection have become increasingly popular: Vima Zanta, Vima Ksima, Vikoda, Vima Tarda, Vima Rina, Kimberly. These varieties are distinguished by increased winter hardiness, productivity, large-fruited, high palatability, density of berries, resistance to major diseases and pests.

Evgeny Sirotkin,
candidate of agricultural sciences,
Researcher of the Breeding Department
fruit crops VNIIS them. I.V. Michurin,
Michurinsk


Alpine strawberry variety "September Surprise"

  • Fruit color: red
  • Average fruit weight: 15 grams
  • Harvesting period: from the beginning of summer to the end of the first third of the autumn season
  • Plant height: 21 cm

The parent of this variety is "Baron Solemakher" - a famous variety of alpine strawberries, distinguished by long-term fruiting, but does not take root well in the middle lane. The "September surprise" derived from it adapts to our climatic realities much more successfully and faster. With timely watering (and this is practically the only prerequisite for abundant fruiting of the variety), the berries will ripen quickly and in large quantities.

The beauty of alpine strawberries is that all of the listed varieties are remontant, that is, those that are capable of bearing fruit several times during the season. Having tasted sweet aromatic berries for the first time in spring or early summer, you can easily enjoy them even in late autumn. It would seem that it is cold outside the window, and sometimes even frost - and any fruiting contradicts the laws of the genre. But no! Ruby berries peep out from under the bush, as if reminding that winter is not endless, that summer is just around the corner, and happiness is always in the details.


Golden strawberry

If you want to buy? and plant? garden strawberry Zolotinka (fragaria ananassa) at home, then go to https://lafa.ru/plants/p/65525-zemlya... Learn about the peculiarities of the variety, see the full description of the characteristics of the plant strawberry garden Zolotinka, learn to plant and care if you have not done it yet. Read also the reviews? other buyers about the plant garden strawberry Zolotinka.
Seedling of strawberry garden Zolotinka with delivery? to the pick-up point, or right to your door across Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan. It is also possible to deliver seeds, bulbs and plants with an open root system (OCS) by Russian Post. Will we deliver in Moscow and the Moscow region by our own courier service? Is it possible to pay by credit card?, According to a Sberbank receipt ?, in cash? to the courier. Order!
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This Video ? with a complete overview of the garden strawberry Zolotinka (fragaria ananassa).


Features of growing, planting and varieties of strawberries - garden and vegetable garden

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Breeding strawberries and strawberries

It is quite easy to propagate garden strawberries:

Propagation of strawberries with rosettes. Photo from greendacha.com

  1. Sockets - as soon as they have a root system. They are cut off from the mother plant and transplanted into pre-moistened soil.
  2. Seeds, which must be soaked for 2 days in melt or rain water before sowing. The water needs to be changed twice a day, and a universal earthen mixture will do for sowing.
  3. By dividing the bush, for which it is best to use 3-4 year old plants.

The subtleties of vegetative propagation are described in detail in the article Whiskers and horns - methods of propagation of garden strawberries.


Sowing seeds for seedlings

In the presence of artificial supplementary lighting, sowing strawberries with seeds can be done as early as early March. If this is not possible, the period when strawberries are sown for seedlings begins in April. Sowing is accompanied by some features:

  • seedlings germinated up to 1 cm must be planted in boxes with soil: grooves are made on the surface of 3 cm deep, where the seeds are placed
  • before planting, the ground must be moistened
  • distance between seedlings - at least 2 cm
  • after planting, you can water the plants from a spray bottle
  • when growing seedlings of strawberries from seeds, it is necessary to constantly add soil to the cotyledon leaves
  • when the strawberry seedlings have grown and begin to close, they can be transplanted into cups with soil.

Growing strawberry seedlings is very similar to the process of planting strawberries: you need to plant strawberry seeds for seedlings in the same period.

If the seeds are not germinated, dry, it is better to sow them in a box with soil, covered with a layer of snow on top.


Strawberries Baron Solemacher - reviews of gardeners

Gardeners speak of Baron Solemacher's strawberries mostly positively.She was especially fond of summer residents in central Russia and in the Moscow region - for an early and abundant harvest, endurance, unpretentiousness and excellent taste of berries.

"The first time I tried to grow strawberries in the open field, and chose this variety - as the most picky one. I was pleasantly surprised. It is enough to provide regular watering, remove weeds on time, and feed the plants with organic matter. The harvest is excellent, and the berry is fragrant and very tasty!"

Valentina Grigorievna Bannova, gardener

“I have long dreamed of growing a home garden from berries and small-sized vegetables - tasty, healthy and beautiful. I decided to start with strawberries and chose the Baron Solemacher variety, unfortunately it needs manual pollination, but it’s enough to do it with an ordinary brush. a couple of bushes, but most importantly - excellent decorative qualities during flowering and fruiting. "

Strawberries Baron Solemacher - a photo of the harvest from one bush

I had difficulties with Baron Solemacher when growing strawberry seedlings. Seedlings are very fragile and delicate, they require a lot of attention and endurance. I am glad that the seed germination is excellent. The seeds need to be disinfected and stratified in the snow, and in order to germinate better, they must be fed with stimulants, the seedlings must be hardened and fertilized, then it will grow strong and healthy.

Baron Solemacher is considered a classic garden strawberry. It bears fruit abundantly throughout the season, and the taste and aroma of the berries deserve the highest marks. In care, the variety is unpretentious and firmly tolerates adverse conditions.


Watch the video: Growing Strawberries: How to Grow the Best Tasting Strawberries