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Do you want to grow a daffodil?
Reproduction of daffodils
The narcissus (and hyacinth) bulb is perennial, in contrast to the tulip, in which it is renewed annually. The storage scales of a daffodil (there are from 9 to 17) live up to 4 years, increasing in size along with the bulb. Later, the outer scales become thinner, turning into protective shells. The roots are fibrous, penetrate up to 30 cm deep.
Daffodils are propagated vegetatively by children, which are separated from the mother's bulb after 2-4 years. But also not separated, but already large young bulbs form their flower arrows and bloom together with the mother bulb, forming large 2-3-apical bulbs with 2-3 flowers.
Babies are separated from the mother's bulb only after the death of those scales in the sinuses of which they were formed. It takes 24-25 months from the bud to flowering of the renewal bud. A young bulb from a baby reaches its maximum reproduction rate by the third year. Therefore, commercial bulbs are dug up no earlier than three years after planting.
The life span of narcissus roots is 10-11 months, after which they gradually die off, and in August, new young roots begin to grow. With excessively moistened soil, the dying off of old roots is delayed, and the regrowth of new ones may already begin, even in storage. Bulbs must be handled with great care, since damaged roots cannot be restored and the bulbs will develop very poorly.
At the end of winter, the growth of bulbs is limited only by the air temperature: at soil temperatures above + 5 ° C, it already begins. Subsequent cooling can damage both underground and aboveground parts of the bulbs. This explains the lower winter hardiness of daffodils in comparison with tulips. Long winter thaws with subsequent frosts are especially dangerous for double varieties, tacettes. In this case, it is reasonable not to rush to dig up the area with the "missing" daffodils - they can recover from living small children.
Planting time: in each soil-climatic zone it is different. It is important that the bulbs are well rooted before winter. In the middle lane, planting in mid-August allows daffodils to grow roots up to 20 cm long, and at the end of September - only 5 cm.For the North-West, planting daffodils is optimal in late August - early September, after small-bulbous ones. The Dutch believe that early planting, as soon as the babies separate after digging and drying the bulbs, prevents them from drying out, makes it possible to root well and successfully overwinter.
Daffodils tubular yellow
Landing site: slides, ridges, lawns, mixborders, tree trunks. It should be light, semi-shady, well-drained, with a pH of at least 6.5. The soil is light loamy or sandy loam, with a depth of the fertile layer of at least 40-45 cm. But practically daffodils grow on any soil. It is only necessary to take into account that sandy soils freeze deeper than clay soils.
The groundwater level is desirable no higher than 60 cm from the soil surface. Heavy clay soils must be improved by adding 20-30 kg of sand or 10-15 kg of peat per 1 m2. Peat soils are limed at pH 6.0 and below. Adding 350-400 g of carbonic lime per 1 m2 increases the pH by one unit.
When choosing a planting site, it is important to protect the plants from cold winds. A month before planting, the soil is prepared: loosened or dug up with the introduction of 5-20 kg per 1 m2 of humus, 50-100 g of superphosphate, 40-60 g of nitroammofoska, 200 g of ash, 200 g of bone meal. Instead of the listed mineral fertilizers, you can put 1-2 granules of long-acting complex fertilizer AVA in each well under the bulb.
Never apply under the bulbous fresh manure in the year of planting. For daffodils, you can apply it 2-3 years before planting, for tulips - 3-4 years. Before planting, the bulbs are carefully examined, diseased, soft, damaged bulbs are removed. They take care of fragile young roots that cannot be restored. Before planting, the bulbs are kept for 20-30 minutes in a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate or in a 0.3% -0.5% solution of karbofos, or they are powdered with foundation for the prevention of diseases and protection against damage by onion mites.
Planting depth is usually equal to three times the height of the bulbs from the bottom to the ground (8-12 cm of the ground from the bottom). The distance between the bulbs is usually 1.5-2 times the diameter of the bulb.
- At 1 m? plant 50-60 bulbs of the first analysis, 70-80 bulbs of the second analysis, 100 pieces of the third analysis.
- Extra - the diameter of the bulb is 5 cm or more; 1 analysis - the diameter of the bulb is 4–4.9 cm; 2 analysis - the diameter of the bulb is 3–3.9 cm; 3 analysis - the diameter of the bulb is 2–2.9 cm.
- If the planting of daffodils is designed for many years, then the distance between the bulbs is more - 15–20 cm, so that the nests have a normal feeding area and space for growth.
- In dry weather, plantings are watered and immediately mulched with loose material to retain moisture in the soil.
- In the first winter, young plantings are mulched with leaves or peat in a layer of up to 10 cm. Later, only terry varieties and tacettoid daffodils are covered, as the most vulnerable to low temperatures.
In the spring, they remove the shelter, loosen the soil after rains and watering, feed with full fertilizer (if not using AVA). Water the daffodils if necessary - in hot dry weather, not over the leaves, to the entire depth of the roots (up to 30 cm, 2-3 watering cans per 1 m2). During the growing season, be sure to regularly inspect the plantings, remove and destroy sick, withering plants.
Top dressing with complex fertilizers is given at least four times per season, if you do not use a complex long-acting AVA fertilizer. From high-speed complex fertilizers choose any - nitroammofosku, Kemira. Traditionally they do: the first feeding with Kemira 80 - 100 g per 1 m2 during the period of mass shoots; the second - 60-70 g during budding; the third - the same during mass flowering, the fourth - after flowering with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers (P: K = 2: 1). Instead, when planting or in spring, it is enough to add 2-3 AVA pellets at once for three years of feeding the bulbs. In the spring, it will be enough to give one top dressing with Kemira or urea to maintain the growth of vegetative mass and flower arrows
It is recommended to cut flowers in dry weather in the morning or in the evening, it is preferable to break out rather than cut the arrows because of the danger of transmitting infection from diseased plants with the tool. It is better to store daffodils with stems up, wrapped in dry paper at a temperature of + 1.5 ... 2 ° C - up to 12 days. Before placing in a vase, the oblique cut is renewed under water and placed in a nutrient solution: 1 tbsp. l. sugar per 1 liter of water. On the first day, daffodils release slimy toxic substances into the water, so they are not combined with other flowers. After 1-2 days, change the water and combine the daffodils with other types of flowers. Preservatives are added to the water from decaying stems in a vase: 0.1 g of boric acid; 0.003 g of potassium permanganate; or 0.001 g of salicylic acid. In addition, several crystals of citric or ascorbic acid are added to the water, or 1 tbsp. vinegar in 1 liter of water. Daffodils stay cut longer in an acidic environment (pH 3-4.5)
Daffodil digging time
The beginning of July, when, after flowering, the leaves begin to "disperse", their tips turn yellow. If you wait until the leaves turn yellow and lodge, then when digging due to the formation of a dividing layer of cells at the base of the leaves, the leaves easily fall off the nest of the bulbs, which makes digging difficult. At the same time, the boundaries of planting are lost, you can cut the bulbs with a shovel. Late digging is dangerous because the bulbs by this time form young roots, which will certainly be injured during digging, sorting and drying, and will not recover. Unrooted bulbs are weakened, prone to various diseases, overwinter poorly and bloom poorly.
The shortest is only for drying and separating large children. The bulbs are dried under a canopy or in a ventilated area at room temperature. They can be planted almost immediately after digging. If necessary, flowering plants are transplanted with a large lump. Early planting ensures good rooting, successful wintering and abundant flowering.
Shelter as such is usually not done, except for high (up to 10 cm) mulching with peat. (Unlike tulips, daffodils "love" peat.) But for varieties with double flowers and daffodils, additional cover (spruce branches, dry leaves) is required
Planting material in varieties can be purchased at the All-Russian Institute of Selection and Technology for Horticulture and Nursery, in specialized nurseries and stores
Prevention of disease and pest damage to daffodils (and tulips)
Daffodils Jonquillia and tubular
Bulbous crops often suffer from fungal infection (sclerocial and gray rot), viral mosaic, which is transmitted with plant sap during cutting and aphids (affected plants must be destroyed). Bulbs are harmed by a large daffodil fly, onion and tuberous hoverflies, and a root onion mite
To protect the bulbous, it is recommended to adhere to some general rules.
• Timely planting and digging of bulbs. Return of daffodils to the same place in 5-6 years
• Alternation of crops that do not have the same pests and diseases. Use joint planting of phytoncidal plants: calendula, tagetes, nasturtium, pyrethrum, cochia, tarragon
• Regularly inspect the plantings and immediately dig up affected plants with a large clod of soil, remove them from the site and destroy. • Lime acidic soils that impair plant growth and development. Slaked lime, dolomite flour is applied in the fall before planting when digging the soil (350-500 g per 1 m2)
• Before planting, dressing of bulbs in potassium permanganate (0.15%) from diseases and in malofos (0.2-0.3%) from pests for 30 minutes
• During the growing season, prophylactic spraying of daffodil plantings with fungicides is practiced: 1% Bordeaux liquid and 0.5-0.6% copper oxychloride
• In June, during the summer of the daffodil fly, spraying with karbofos is used (0.2-0.3%)
Elena Olegovna (Marasanova) Kuzmina
Kentrantus or sporotsvetnik is a beautiful flowering perennial plant with a specific character from the Valerianov family. During the flowering period, the culture attracts the attention of others with its lace inflorescences of white or crimson shades. The warm and humid Mediterranean climate is its homeland. Currently, the plant can be found not only in ordinary flower beds, kentranthus demonstrates its decorative qualities on borders and along paths, in rockeries and rock gardens, in mixborders and on retaining walls. In flower ensembles, the culture is perfectly combined with other perennial plants.
Classification of daffodils
In the garden classification, daffodils are classified into 13 groups. Their main difference is the structure of the flower.
1. Tubular (Trumpet) - the pedicle forms a tube, it is equal in length to the shares of the perianth. In the group, there are varieties with white as well as yellow flowers, and two-color.
2. Large-cupped - a tube-shaped pedicle, its height exceeds 1/3 of the perianth length. In addition to the banal white and yellow colors, there are varieties of daffodils with an orange crown.
3. Small-cupped - the perianth is much shorter than the perianth lobes, and no more than 1/3 of its length. The flowers are two-colored, the perianth is yellow or white, sometimes apricot, orange crown, sometimes with a red border.
4. Terry (Double) - daffodils with six perianth lobes. Flowers are yellow, white, two-colored, for example, the outer lobes are yellow or white, and the inner ones are orange-red.
5. Split-Corona - the crown is cut by more than one third of the length. The varieties differ in the unusual shape of the corolla and crown, the originality of the combinations of several colorings (usually three), the large size (more than 18 cm in diameter) of the flowers and the different flowering period.
6. Triandrus (Triandrus) - these varieties have signs of three-stalk daffodil. The perianth is bent back, a long tube, its length sometimes exceeds the length of the perianth lobes. In triandrus daffodils, flowers are drooping, single.
7. Cyclamineus - the varieties were obtained by crossing the species cyclamen daffodil and cultivated forms. Perianth lobes are bent back, long tube, longer than perianth lobes. Flowers drooping, solitary.
8. Jonquilla - the stem bears from 2-6 small flowers with a shortish crown, which have a pleasant smell. Plant height 40 cm.
9. Tazetta - 2-5 small fragrant flowers on the peduncle. In tacetal daffodils, the perianth lobes are rounded. The color of the flowers is yellow and snow-white. Tacetta daffodils are sensitive to low temperatures. For the winter, tacette daffodils need shelter.
10. Poetic (Poeticus) - This group is characterized by the characteristics of the species narcissus (Poeticus). There is a single flower on the stem. The perianth segments are white, the crown is brightly colored, small, it may be yellow with a bright edge. Most varieties have a delicate aroma that is neither strong nor harsh. The varieties of this group are good for forcing.
11. Bulbocodium hybrids (Bulbocodium). The flowers of these daffodils are small, bell-shaped.
12. All species daffodils. All other wild daffodils.
13. Others. All daffodils that do not fit the previous groups.
Planting rules and caring for daffodils
Whichever variety the daffodil is, planting and grooming requirements for daffodils remain unchanged.
Narcissus is a typically perennial plant. In one place without a transplant, it can grow for 5-6 years. Plants should be transplanted when the bulbs, growing, begin to press against each other and the flowering weakens.
Daffodil bulbs perennial, consist of a bottom, concentric storage scales, growing year after year, and dry brownish outer covering scales. Bulbs are single and multi-peaked, the latter consist of several bulbs with a common bottom and covering scales, from which several stems with flowers can grow. A multi-peaked bulb can be divided by cutting along the bottom, dusting the cuts with ash and holding for several days before planting.
The best time to purchase planting material is 3 months after flowering. For daffodils grown in the middle lane, this is mid-August and later. Earlier dates are possible for bulbs grown in the south of Russia or imported.
Buying bulbs in the first place pay attention to their density (soft or dry are not suitable), cleanliness and integrity of the bottom, smoothness and density of the tops (necks).
Bulbs are not recommended:
- in spring
- excavated with stems, flowers, roots during or immediately after flowering
- those that have already shown a sprout
- multi-peaked, if one large onion is surrounded by numerous small
- after the onset of persistent cold weather and freezing of the soil.
Daffodil bulbs are planted in September. Choose a well-lit, wind-protected area for planting. The daffodil also feels great in light partial shade. In such conditions, he has a high peduncle, large and bright flowers. It blooms longer.
Narcissus can grow in almost any soil - from sandy to clayey. But at the same time, it must be borne in mind that the arable layer should be at least 30 cm, it is to this depth that the roots of the narcissus extend. And don't forget to drain. For all his love for moisture, the daffodil does not tolerate stagnant water, his bulbs can rot.
In addition, they cannot be planted where daffodils were grown the day before (you can return to their original place in 5-6 years), lilies, tulips, onions and other bulbous crops, as well as phlox, perennial asters and chrysanthemums. Good predecessors are cereals, legumes, herbs, cucumbers, tomatoes, peonies.
Sand is added to heavy clay soils (20-30 kg per 1 sq. M), and to sandy soils - humus (up to 20 kg per 1 sq. M).
When planting daffodils, no way you can not add fresh manure to the soil... It is brought in one year before planting at the rate of 15 kg per 1 sq. m. But this is not enough for daffodils. In June, when preparing the soil for daffodils, dig it up and add 50 g of superphosphate and 30 g of potassium salt to each square meter. It would be nice to add humus too.
It is best to plant daffodils immediately after digging - in mid-August. Daffodil bulbs do not store well. Unprotected by dense leathery scales, like a tulip, they evaporate a lot of moisture during storage. Before planting, the bulbs must be kept in a solution of foundation (0.2%) and rogor (0.3%) for 20-30 minutes. The bulb is planted to a depth equal to three of its heights, counting from the bottom. If the weather is hot, dry, then the daffodils should be watered. In the fall, before frosts, it is advisable to cover new plantings with a layer of peat or leaves. In the future, plants will not need shelters, with the exception of daffodils.
During the season, daffodils are fed 4 times... The first three dressings - during germination, budding and flowering - are the same. Nitrophosphate is added each time. The first time - 100 g per 1 sq. m, and the next two times - 60-70 g per 1 sq. m. The fourth dressing is carried out after flowering and only phosphorus (2 parts) and potash (1 part) fertilizers are applied at the rate of 50-60 g per 1 sq. m. All top dressing is combined with watering, then the earth is loosened or mulched.
Narcissus is a moisture-loving plant, it must be watered to the full depth of the roots (up to 2 buckets per 1 sq. m). Dig up daffodils as soon as the tips of the leaves turn yellow and the bush begins to decay. Do not expect the leaves to die off completely. In this case, the place where the bulbs are located will not be visible, and when they are excavated, they can be accidentally damaged.
If the daffodils remain for the next year, it is necessary, in June, after waiting for the leaves to die completely, rake them and carefully loosen the planting site.
Some growers advise to postpone the digging of daffodils to an earlier date, before the daffodil fly begins to fly, in order to avoid damage to the bulbs.
Dug out daffodils are immediately removed into the shade and carefully freed from the remnants of the earth, carrying out the first culling of diseased and damaged bulbs. Then washed with clean water and etched for 30 min in one of the phosphorus-containing solutions or with a 0.2-0.3% solution of foundationol.
Storage - a very crucial period in the life of daffodil bulbs. Tulips and hyacinths, which need a higher temperature, are not company. Daffodils prefer coolness: until mid-August they will be quite satisfied with the 17-degree mark on the thermometer, and then even lower - up to 9 ° before landing. The humidity in the room should be moderate, a shed somewhere in the shade with good ventilation is best. Be sure to examine the bulbs twice a month and remove the diseased ones.
How to care for daffodils
Care consists in abundant watering, removing weeds and loosening the soil. Watering should be carried out in the morning and in the evening during budding, flowering and then for another two weeks. Then watering is stopped.
When the daffodils begin to bloom, it is necessary to remove the drying heads. But the leaves should not be touched: they should turn yellow and dry on their own. This will be the key to good flowering next year.
In order for the flower heads to be large, it is necessary to apply fertilizer to the soil several times. First, daffodils are fed in early spring, as soon as the first leaves appear. You can use any complex fertilizer for flowers. During the budding period, phosphorus and potash fertilizers are already used. And during flowering, the third feeding is carried out with complex fertilizers. The only taboo is fresh manure.