How to properly prepare girlish grapes for winter

How to properly prepare girlish grapes for winter

Among the current trends in the landscape design of personal plots, hedges remain popular. The most harmonious is the object with the maiden grapes weaving along the supports. And although the berries are not valuable, the intensively developing lash becomes a real decoration of the yard. In this review, you will get acquainted with the description of the varieties of this plant, how and where to plant and the features of care.

Description of maiden grapes

Maiden grape belongs to the perennial crops of the grape family, a tree-like vine native to North America. All over the world, the plant is used as a decor in the design of the landscape of private households, parks, playgrounds, etc.

The stem and branches develop quite quickly, reaching a length of 20 or even 30 m. In the first year after planting, the young shoot increases in size up to 5 m.

The plant translated from Latin means "virgin ivy". The maiden grape got its name due to the peculiarity of forming fruits without pollination.

Brief description of the culture:

  • inflorescences are corymbose, small size yellow-green color;
  • there are antennae with 5-8 ramifications, with the help of them, the whip clings when creeping vertically;
  • finger-complex leaves of 5 leaves, color from deep green to red shades;
  • fruits 5-7 mm dark blue in diameter (inedible for humans due to the content of oxalic acid);
  • flowering period - end of spring.

The berries of the plant are used as feed for birds.

Differences from other species

This type of grape differs from table and wine varieties in its decorative effect. Liana is used mainly for landscape design, both for private households and city parks. The culture gained its popularity due to the following advantageous qualities:

  • decorative characteristics;
  • high resistance to various diseases and insect attacks;
  • unpretentious care;
  • available breeding methods;
  • intensive development of the lash;
  • hypoallergenic shrub;
  • phytoncidal properties of the plant.

When using the crop as a hedge or for zoning space on the site is protected from gases and dust coming from street roads.

Anyone who decides to grow girlish grapes on their site needs to take into account the peculiarity of the plant. It consists in the intensive development of branches, which requires regular maintenance: garters, pruning, forming a bush. In the opposite case, a mop of an unkempt look will braid cultivated plants and all buildings.

Most popular varieties

Among the most popular varieties, there are two varieties of maiden grapes, which are most often used for landscape decoration.

Virginian (five-leaf)

The five-leafed plant reaches branch lengths up to 20 m, is characterized by green foliage, which acquires a reddish tint closer to autumn. Young shoots in the first year of life grow up to 2.5 m, while crawling, clinging to everything that is possible with its antennae and suction cups. The leaves look like chestnut greens. In July, the bushes bloom abundantly, they are densely covered with nondescript small flowers of yellow-green color. Already in the first ten days of August, small clusters of dark blue berries can be seen on the branches of the vines, which often become a delicacy for birds.

The Virginia variety is distinguished by its unpretentious care, the ability to actively develop even on devastated soils and in the shade.

Ivy (triangular)

The variety got its name due to the similarity of the leaf with ivy greens. The culture is very widely used as a decoration in Asian countries: Korea, China, Japan. The color of the leaves depends on the variety. The golden liana is characterized by the presence of yellow spots on the green surface, the purple subspecies has a dark burgundy coating, and the Vicha grapes are distinguished by small glossy green leaves, which acquire a bright orange color by autumn. With its magical reincarnation and unique beauty, Vicha is the most sought after by designers and gardeners.

Outdoor planting in spring and autumn

There are no definite dates for planting maiden grapes, since the plant adapts perfectly under any conditions, except frost. The most favorable periods for good survival of shoots are autumn (September, October) and spring (April, May). It is better to plan the process of planting a climbing plant in the morning or evening, when the sun's rays are not so active.

You won't have to choose a place for a bush for a long time, the culture develops well regardless of the intensity of sunlight. It is good if the soil is fertile, but even on difficult soils, where there are layers of clay, the root system will grow stronger and grow without much effort.

Under the seedling, it is necessary to prepare a pit with parameters 60x60 cm. Broken bricks or crushed stone for drainage are laid at the bottom. The next layer is filled with sand (at least 20 cm), and then a soil mixture of the following components:

  • half a bucket of fertile garden land;
  • half a bucket of compost or humus;
  • half a bucket of peat;
  • glass of wood ash.

If the soil is dense, you can lighten it with river sand.

When determining the location of pits between landings, it is recommended to observe an interval of at least 80 cm between plants and 1 m from the foundation of the building.

After filling the seedling with earth, water the bush abundantly with water.

Features of care, preparation for winter

At first, it is necessary to regularly water the young shoot. An adult plant is moistened no more than 3-4 times per season. The unpretentiousness to moisture is explained by the deep penetration of root shoots into the soil, where it eats natural reserves of water.

Regular care is required for the formation of the bush itself. The plant needs to be pruned, and also needs pruning, garters, support installations to guide the weaving of branches. However, it should be borne in mind that only young seedlings need a garter, when the antennae have not yet developed enough for strong fixation to surfaces.

The first year of the seedling's life is characterized by rooting and the beginning of the growth of the lash. Immunity is not sufficiently strengthened in such a short time, therefore, gardeners are advised to cover the young culture for the winter in order to prevent freezing.

To stimulate the development of the branchy part and foliage, it is recommended to periodically (2-3 times per season) apply fertilizer to the soil. The simplest option is considered to be watering with a solution of wood ash. You can also use potassium magnesium, nitroammofosku, Aquamarine.

Maiden grapes tend to gradually rise in the soil and expose the rhizomes. If you notice that the roots of the plant begin to protrude above the ground, be sure to add fresh soil and slightly spud the vine. Usually this procedure is carried out in the fall, as part of the preparation of the garden for winter.

Breeding rules for decorative grapes

Ornamental grapes are propagated in the following ways:

  • seeds;
  • using layering;
  • cuttings.

Seeds

The process of growing a shoot from seed takes quite a long time. In spring or autumn (in October), grains that have been previously hardened and soaked are immersed in a container with loose soil. The immersion depth is 1 cm. A film is covered on top of the container and before the germination of the shoots, a temperature regime of no more than 5 ° is observed. After about a month, the first shoots will appear, and when they reach a height of 10 cm, the shoots should be transplanted into open ground, if the transplant falls in the spring, or into a separate pot for further wintering.

Layers

By layering, the plant reproduces very willingly and actively. To do this, you should select branches that are approximately 2-3 years old. Having pressed them to the ground, you need to sprinkle the soil in the place where the rooting of the shoot is planned. Fix the top with a garter or support vertically. During the first days, watering and the absence of drafts are important. The roots form very quickly, after a month you can observe a well-developed root system. After the cuttings are rooted, the junction of the bushes must be cut off with garden shears (a knife with a sharp blade).

Cuttings

Petioles are harvested in autumn and spring until the moment the juice moves. The length of the workpiece should be approximately 23-30 cm. It is also important for further vegetation to have buds (4-5 pcs.). Planting is carried out in loose soil with immersion in it by half or a third so that 2-3 buds remain on top. Before the sprout takes root, regular watering and protection (shading) from the scorching sun is important.

Diseases and pests

Ornamental culture has strong immunity, so it is rarely attacked by pests or diseases. Sometimes on the leaves you can see aphids, getting rid of which will not be difficult. It is enough to first crush the insects with water, then treat the bush with soapy water and alcohol (in a ratio of 3: 1).

High aesthetic value, unpretentious care and resistance to various diseases have made the girl's grapes popular among gardeners and landscape designers. Thick foliage will decorate the courtyard, create shading in the recreation area, hide the unsightly walls of ancillary buildings. A hedge will allow you to retire in any corner of the site and prevent the penetration of street dust from the roadway.


The list of necessary work to be carried out is not too long. But all procedures are important - they will help keep the vine healthy.

A healthy spring bush of grapes is hard work in the fall. The laying of fruitful buds, the active growth of greenery and the root system - all this requires energy, some of which is stored in the autumn-winter period. To get a good harvest for the coming season, it is important to know how to properly prepare the grapes for winter:

  • Watering. It is necessary to replenish the strength and moisture in the roots after the harvest is ripe. Indeed, at the end of summer, the shrub gives everything to its fruits.
  • Fertilizer. Another help in replenishing strength and nutrients.
  • Pruning. Removing excess shoots, distributing branches to create a quality crop and green growth.
  • Prevention of diseases and pests. Even if the shrub is healthy, fungus or insects can appear under cover during the winter thaw.
  • Shelter. Protection from frost, wind and ice will protect both the vine and the root system.

Further, these issues will be covered in more detail.

Important! Neglecting these procedures can lead to a significant decrease in yields for the next year. Plants of the first year of life may die altogether.


Preparing maiden grapes for winter

Among gardeners, there is an opinion that girlish grapes are an unpretentious plant that does not require any special care, and all preparation for winter comes down to harvesting leaves and formative pruning. Its winter hardiness is so high that it does not freeze out the lashes suspended on a two-meter metal fence. And in most cases, this is true.

With the onset of autumn, the lashes of the maiden grapes acquire a beautiful color. Its branches, shimmering with all shades of red, become like a mountain ash awaiting leaf fall. Even in winter, densely intertwined shoots look very original, decorating the garden with a kind of lace pattern.

Sanitary pruning, which is most often done in the fall, is not necessary at all. But if this operation is excluded, the reproduction of maiden grapes can take on simply catastrophic proportions. Branches and shoots are so intertwined and entangled that they form insurmountable thickets - a clear example of how the main advantage of decorative culture turns into its disadvantage. In order not to have problems with overgrown lashes, it is better to thin out in time, without postponing this matter until the spring, when there really may not be enough time for it.

The frost resistance of maiden grapes is beyond doubt; it winters calmly without shelter, even in areas with very harsh winters. The exception is young specimens, which are still recommended to be removed from the support in the fall in order to fall asleep on the ground with snow. When winter is expected with little snow, the root zone can be additionally covered with soil or dry peat. But, as the plants mature, this need disappears.

If the vine grows not in the open field, but in a pot, standing, for example, on the balcony, preparing it for winter will already require considerable trouble. Containers with a volume of more than 15 liters can be left directly on the street, only by tying them with some kind of insulating material. Smaller containers usually freeze completely - no strapping will help here. Such pots should be buried in the ground for the winter or brought indoors. Shoots in this case are recommended to be cut in the spring. But it should be borne in mind that after severe freezing, the growth from dormant buds will be small, and the plant may not curl the balcony, as in the past season.


Preparing grapes for winter

Now sellers are actively promoting frost-resistant grape varieties. Say, they can withstand frosts down to -35 ° C without shelter. In fact, this is not the case. Only two varieties survive without insulation: Isabella and Lydia. And the rest must be covered!

But here a problem arises: how exactly? There are a lot of options for shelter, but in fact, many of them are profanity. We will list the most common methods, and at the same time find out which ones are really reliable and which ones are better not to use when preparing grapes for winter.

Reliable

Pine branches. This is one of the easiest options. The vine rolled into a ring should be pressed to the ground with 3 - 4 bricks, and a pine spruce branch should be thrown on top. The height of the shelter should be 20-30 cm.

With such protection, even in a snowless winter, the vine is able to withstand 32 ° C of frost without serious losses - more than 70% of the buds survive.

True, during the winter thaws, moisture can get under this shelter. But since air passes well through the spruce branches, there will be no stagnation of water there and the vine will quickly dry out. So she is not threatened with podoprevanie.

This method has one drawback: it is not suitable for sandy soils, since spruce branches protect shoots from frost well, but cannot protect the roots. And on the sand they are located shallow, and a strong drop in temperature will simply kill them.

Reed (reed) mats. It's also a pretty simple option. The vine, as in the case of pine branches, is laid on the ground, pressed down with bricks, and mats are laid on top of it in two (necessarily!) Layers.

Such a shelter protects the grapes from severe frosts, since the reeds in the mats are hollow, air is trapped in them, and it is an excellent heat insulator.

The method has one drawback - high cost. A single-layer mat measuring 100x75 cm will cost about 400 rubles. For each vine you need 2 pieces. So the protection of the grapes will result in a decent amount. And the service life of such a mat is short - at most 3-4 years.

Sawdust. This method is a little more troublesome, but it is reliable in any areas, even sandy ones.

A film is laid on the ground (this must be done, otherwise the sawdust will be saturated with moisture from the soil and there will be no sense from them), a vine rolled into a ring is laid on it, 20 cm of sawdust is poured over it, and a sheet of slate is placed on top (as protection against moisture ).

With this option, the grapes can withstand any frost. And, what is more important, the vine will always be dry, which means it will not support during thaws.

Doubtful

Land. Many summer residents cover the grapes simply: they remove it from the support, put it on the ground and sprinkle it with it. They say the method is reliable and simple. But other gardeners complain that this method did not work for them: some have lost their grapes, some have died out.

That's right, because the reliability of such a shelter depends on the type of soil and weather. Sprinkled with black earth, the grapes actually winters well. But if you put sand over the vine, it will freeze. And if there are thaws in winter, the grapes will soper. Regardless of the type of soil.

Non-woven. Recently, covering nonwoven materials (spunbond, agrotex, lutrasil, etc.) have become very popular with summer residents: they cover everything in a row. So they advise grapes.

In fact, all these materials, especially if the vine is covered with them in 2 - 3 layers, are quite capable of protecting them from frost. And from damping, as these materials breathe, removing unnecessary condensation from under the shelter.

Alas, if severe frosts hit the bare ground, no non-fabric will save - the grapes will die.

Polyethylene film. This method is also practiced by many summer residents. But in today's weather conditions, film can be dangerous. In recent years, warm days have been increasingly common in central Russia in winter, and a strong greenhouse effect arises under the polyethylene. Yes, such that the kidneys wake up! And then - frost, and they die.

Murderous

Tops and fallen leaves... This method can only be advised to a hated neighbor, because under the plant debris the vine vomits 100%!

Fresh manure. This variant appears from time to time in the literature. His supporters cite "iron arguments": they say, manure, piled on top of the vine, heats up in winter, and the grapes will be warm. And also, the "experts" assure, the manure kills the fungi that winter on the vine. Whether this is really so, no one knows. But the fact that fresh organic matter kills the kidneys is a fact.

When to remove from the support

Many summer residents believe that grapes should be covered after the first light frosts - usually in the first half of October. The vine, they say, is flexible at this time, it is easy to twist it into a ring. And if the frosts hit harder, it "hardens" and can break when unwinding.

But professional growers say that the vine actually does not "dub" much and there will be no problems with its laying on the ground. Another thing is more important: it is necessary to wait for dry weather so that the grapes do not end up on top of damp soil. And you can remove it from the supports in November, and even at the beginning of December. The main thing is to be in time before the air temperature drops to -15 ° С.

Q&A: Will roses survive on a windowsill

“I bought miniature roses, lavender, sage at the summer sale. All summer they lived on the balcony, they grew up well. What to do with them now? Will they live at home? "

Sage is best transplanted into the garden - this plant winters well in the middle lane and will delight you in the country for many years. But at home he will be uncomfortable, because he needs a period of rest.

As for lavender, not everything is clear. If this is narrow-leaved lavender, then it can also be sent to the garden - with shelter, it winters well even in harsh climates. All other types of lavender in the open field are doomed: they are very thermophilic, even shelter in winter does not save them. You can keep lavender at home, but it is very whimsical. You need backlighting and a cool wintering - the temperature in winter should be about 10 ° C, and in the conditions of an apartment it is difficult to ensure this.

The situation is even worse with miniature roses. This is a very light-loving plant! They will not survive without lights on the windowsill. Moreover, an ordinary incandescent lamp or now fashionable energy-saving lamps will not work: there is a spectrum that is completely unsuitable for plants. Only the phytolamp will save, and it should burn 12 hours a day, for example, from 8 am to 8 pm.

But these are not all problems. Roses are very strongly affected by the spider mite - it multiplies especially actively if the air is dry. And in apartments with central heating, it is always dry: when the batteries are working, the air humidity is kept around 20%. Perfect conditions for the pest! Yes, the tick is treated with the help of special preparations, for example, "Kleschevita", but it will not be possible to finally get rid of it - you will have to process the roses all the time, about once a month. Even worse, the mite infects most houseplants. You might not know about it until roses appear on the windowsill - they are a breeding ground for this pest. As a result, all plants will have to be processed all winter.

At the dacha, miniature roses will not grow either - they are very thermophilic. So the simplest thing is to leave them on the balcony until frost. And when they die, throw it away. This is the case when the game is not worth the candle.


Works in the post-winter period

After winter, when the night frosts have passed, the vineyards are opened and prepared for the further fruiting season. In addition to the fact that in spring, as well as in autumn, the bushes are pruned, for a successful increase in yield, there are certain rules that are observed when opening the vine. This article will tell you about the reproduction of the Maiden grapes.

How to open

Experienced farmers advise to open most varieties, including Taifi, during the period when the snow has not melted yet. When the first positive indicators appear, the covering material is removed, but a kind of greenhouse is made from the film. It is fixed on the trellis, slightly dripping at the bottom and tucking the polyethylene under the lower slats.

Thus, the vine lies for several days, thawing and spreading the branches. ZThen, when traces of setting new shoots are noticeable, it is carefully removed and fixed in place.

Only after this is the grape pruning and watering.


How to prepare grapes for winter and prune them correctly?

In order not to worry about how it will overwinter, you need to figure out how to prepare grapes for winter. The successful wintering depends on what kind of harvest the gardener will collect. In order for this plant to enter the winter prepared, developed, healthy, it is necessary to carry out the necessary procedures - pruning, processing, sheltering the grapes.

Pruning grapes for winter is one of the important stages, and here pity, in some cases, can be a hindrance, but thoughtless shredding is useless. When pruning in the fall, it is necessary to leave shoots that are well ripe, brown in color, such branches crack in a peculiar way when bent, but the integrity is not violated.

If the wood is ripe, it will be warm all winter. There will be no fungi and mold on it, in order to accelerate the ripening of the vine, you need to part with unnecessary shoots, unnecessary bunches in time, which will no longer ripen this season. If in doubt how to do it right, watch the video.

The vine winters well with a diameter of 6 to 14 mm. With a core equal to a third of the diameter, since it accumulates nutrients in the required volume, ensuring a successful wintering and the next life of the plant.

The gardener should not forget about the autumn minting, the purpose of which is to remove sprouts with a focus on length. The vine should not remain long for the winter, which means that you need to remove the shoot in the fall by about 15 eyes.

You can not cut off the sprouts of young grapes ahead of time, it will not withstand great cold. Early pruning reduces the endurance, winter hardiness of the shrub, so it should be done in the middle of autumn, and optimally - when a low temperature appears. It is necessary to start the procedure when stable cold snaps come (the temperature will be kept within 0 ° C). It is necessary to part with the embryos, immature, unhealthy, very adult, wounded shoots. Each bush arm should have a fruit arrow and a part such as a replacement knot.


How to cover a vine for the winter

When all the preparatory measures have been taken, the grapes need to be covered. The fact is that grapes are able to withstand temperatures down to -15 ° C. To protect the plant, you need to cover them correctly and in time before wintering.

Popular ways to hide grapes:

  1. Dry. The easiest way to cover the vine is to use nonwovens and building materials. The vine is placed on slate pieces prepared in advance, and then covered with paper. Then they put strong arcs 30-40 cm from the plant, and put on a heater over them. Remember to leave holes to allow condensation to evaporate. The shelter needs to be secured with something heavy around the edges.
  2. Hilling with earth and snow can protect the plant well from cold weather, but this method is suitable for more southern regions. During severe frosts, shoots can partially or completely freeze if the insulation was insufficient. Another "minus" of such a shelter is that not every winter is snowy enough, and for a good shelter you need a cover of snow at least 40 cm high.
  3. Make trenches. In this case, recesses of 50–70 cm are prepared. The grape shoots are fastened together and placed on top of the flooring (you can use slate for this). Then the vine is covered with oilcloth, earth is poured on top. In winter, such a shelter will still sprinkle with snow, and it will keep warm well.

Each method has its own pros and cons, so the choice of cover method is up to you. As for the question of when to shelter grapes for the winter, in Ukraine the process can be started in November and even in December. The optimum temperature at which to start sheltering is 0 ° C and up to -5 ° C during the day, at night frosts can be up to -10 ° C.

There is no need to rush to cover the bushes when it is still warm outside. The vine will rot, the buds will wake up and the sap will begin to move through the plant. This will lead to partial or even complete death of the plant. If you tighten it up with shelter, the shoots will be too brittle, the chances of the plant to successfully survive until spring are reduced. Note that you need to insulate the entire bush, especially the space around it, since the most sensitive to cold part of the plant is the root.

Today there are grape varieties that are resistant to severe frosts. But even they are recommended to be covered just in case, since winters in our country are quite severe. The process of preparing the vine for wintering, although it takes a lot of time, is still necessary. It is important to prepare the bush for the cold weather correctly and in time before sheltering. Pruning, feeding, watering are important activities that will help your plants survive the cold without consequences. Without such preparation, the grapes may not survive the winter frosts and cold winds, which will negatively affect the growth and fruiting of grapes in the coming season.


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